federalism A system of government in which a constitution divides power between a central government and regional governments. (See page 59)
expressed powers The notion that the Constitution grants to the federal government only those powers specifically named in its text. (See page 59)
implied powers Powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution. Such powers are not specifically expressed but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers. (See page 59)
necessary and proper clause Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution provides Congress with the authority to make all laws needed to carry out its expressed powers even if those laws are not specifically mentioned in the Constitution. (See page 60)
reserved powers Powers, derived from the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states; these powers are reserved to the states. (See page 60)
police power Power reserved to the state to regulate the health, safety, welfare, and morals of its citizens. (See page 60)
concurrent powers Authority possessed by both state and national governments, such as the power to levy taxes. (See page 60)
full faith and credit clause The provision in Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring that each state normally honors the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state. (See page 61)
privileges and immunities clause The provision from Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges. (See page 61)
home rule Power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affairs. (See page 62)
dual federalism The system of government that prevailed in the United States from 1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments, with the states exercising the most important powers. (See page 62)
commerce clause The clause found in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which delegates to Congress the power “to regulate commerce with Foreign nations, and among the several States and with the Indian tribes.” This clause was interpreted by the Supreme Court to favor of national power over the economy. (See page 64)
cooperative federalism A type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals. Also known as intergovernmental cooperation. (See page 66)
grant-in-aid A general term for funds given by Congress to state and local governments. (See page 67)
categorical grants-in-aid Funds given by Congress to states and localities and that are earmarked by law for specific categories, such as education or crime prevention. (See page 67)
project grants Grant programs in which state and local governments submit proposals to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a competitive basis. (See page 68)
formula grant Grants-in-aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of federal funds a state or local government will receive. (See page 69)
regulated federalism A form of federalism in which Congress imposes legislation on the states and localities requiring them to meet national standards. (See page 70)
unfunded mandates National standards or programs imposed on state and local governments by the federal government without accompanying funding or reimbursement. (See page 71)
block grants Federal funds given to state governments to pay for goods, services, or programs, with relatively few restrictions on how the funds may be spent. (See page 72)
states’ rights The principle that states should oppose increasing authority of the national government. This view was most popular before the Civil War. (See page 72)
state sovereign immunity A legal doctrine that holds that states cannot be sued for violating an act of Congress. (See page 73)
checks and balances The mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches. (See page 77)
legislative supremacy The preeminent position assigned to Congress by the Constitution. (See page 77)
divided government The condition in American government in which the presidency is controlled by one party while the opposing party controls one or both houses of Congress. (See page 79)
executive privilege The claim that confidential communications between a president and the president’s close advisors should not be revealed without the consent of the president. (See page 80)