In This Chapter

Bookmark and Share

Chapter Review

  • Communism, Equality, and the Nature of Human Relations
    • Communism is an ideology that seeks to create human equality by eliminating private property and market forces.
    • This ideology can be traced primarily to Karl Marx. Marx believed that there was inherent conflict between what he termed the base (the economic system of society, made up of technology and class relations between people) and the superstructure (institutions like religion, culture, and national identity) that Marx saw as exploiting the base.
    • Marx and many other communists rejected liberal democracy because they believed it purported to allow people into the political process, when in fact those with wealth truly controlled politics.
  • Revolution and the “Triumph” of Communism
    • Marx believed that human history moved through a series of phases, and that economic conflict leads to revolutions that would move the world from feudalism though capitalist democracy, and ultimately a communist utopia. This was a process known as dialectical materialism.
    • In Marx’s theory, the communist utopia would be a world without states, and he envisioned a world of total equality without the conflicts of nationalism.
  • Putting Communism into Practice
    • Marx argued that communism would emerge only where capitalism was strongest and thus most prone to collapse. However, Lenin in Russia and Mao in China led communist revolutions in states with low levels of economic development.
    • Because the Communist Party strove to remake all facets of society, these states gathered high levels of autonomy and capacity, often leading to totalitarianism. They repressed all competing organizations and ideologies. 
    • To maintain control, they relied extensively on co-optation, giving government positions to people in exchange for loyalty to the party, as seen with the nomenklatura. Some organizations, like unions, were allowed to exist, but they were controlled by the Communist Party.
    • The party structure resembled a state—general secretary as the executive, a Politburo as the cabinet, the Central Committee as the legislature, and even local cells of supporters—but these institutions usually merely approved whatever party leadership desired.
    • Communist ideology shaped state policy making and legitimized authoritarian control.
  • Communist Political Economy
    • Communist political-economic systems featured elimination of markets and private property. Free markets were replaced with central planning, where the state controlled the type and amount of goods produced.
    • One major problem of communist political-economic systems was that it was difficult for leaders to adapt to changing levels of supply and demand. Because entities in an economy are interdependent, small problems with over- or underproduction can have a huge effect on the entire economy. 
    • A second problem was that communist economies stagnated because workers did not have incentives to produce high-quality goods, as employment was guaranteed and their work was evaluated on quantity over quality.
  • V. Societal Institutions Under Communism
    • Communism sought to remake social institutions that it saw as part of the exploitive superstructure. This included suppressing religion, envisioning the elimination of marriage, providing greater work and political opportunities for women, and eliminating ethnic and national identities.
  • The Collapse of Communism
    • During the 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev initiated political and economic reforms in the Soviet Union due to the internal economic stagnation and because of increasing U.S. dominance. These reforms included glasnost (openness of public debate) and perestroika (actual institutional reforms).
    • Initiating these reforms inspired Soviet-controlled Eastern European countries to demand reforms of their own, and eventually undermined communist control of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.  By 1990, communism had ended in the East European satellite states, and in 1991 the Soviet Union itself collapsed.
    • Resistance to communist control also emerged in China, but the state cracked down harshly on reformers.
  • The Transformation of Political Institutions
    • Postcommunist countries have been faced with significant challenges after living with authoritarianism—how to establish and maintain the rule of law, what shape their democratic institutions should take (including electoral systems and the design of executive-legislative relations), and how to guarantee civil rights.
    • The success of these transitions is mixed. Several of European postcommunist countries score high on Freedom House’s ranking of the level of freedom; however, several countries farther to the east, including Russia, provide less freedom and have become less democratic since their transition.
    • Communism has remained in China, Laos, North Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba, and the legacies of communism and the Cold War are still significant today.
  • The Transformation of Economic Institutions
    • For former communist countries, postcommunist transitions involve the establishment of private property and free markets.
    • In some countries these transitions happened quickly (a process known as shock therapy), while in others change was more gradual.
    • Again, the success of these reforms have been mixed. In Europe, those countries that spent less time under communist control had closer ties to Western Europe and the EU,and, with a stronger rule of law, have prospered more than others.
    • While limiting political reforms, China has instituted significant economic reforms that have resulted in significant economic growth, though scholars debate whether this growth is sustainable into the future.
  • The Transformation of Societal Institutions
    • In postcommunist societies, eliminating the all-encompassing ideology of communism has created a social vacuum, and the social transition from communism has been a wrenching process as people adjust to new realities and seek new individual and collective identities.
    • Religion, ethnic identities, and nationalism, once suppressed by Communist parties, have resurfaced in many countries. The re-emergence of these identities is also impacting gender roles across the region.
    • Like the political and economic transitions, the result of these societal transitions has been mixed. These changing identities have drawn people together in some cases and increased divisions in others, sometimes leading to civil war and the dissolution of states. However, much of the postcommunist world has been peaceful in the last decade, with many ethnic and religious conflicts resolved or averted.
    • Russia and China have seen rising nationalism emphasizing their mistreatment by the West and the unique nature of their identity. This nationalism is generated in part by the government as a way to shore up nondemocratic legitimacy in the absence of communist ideology, and complicates their relations with several international actors.