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Chapter 11
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  • Promotional videos
    • Rock artists always used films for promotional purposes
      1. Elvis movies
      2. Beatles movies
    • Short one-song films to promote a song
      1. This practice has been in place since the 1960s
      2. More common in Europe than in the United States
      3. Particularly common in the UK
        • Places that were far away
        • Australia
        • New Zealand
    • Rock performers regularly appeared on TV shows
      1. American Bandstand
      2. Hullabaloo
      3. Shindig
      4. Where the Action Is
      5. Ed Sullivan Show
    • Beatles made the first promotional videos
      1. They were tiring of the strain of touring and live performances
      2. Videos could be sent to TV stations rather than making a live appearance
        • "Rain"
        • "Paperback Writer"
        • "Penny Lane"
        • "Strawberry Fields"
  • Cable TV background
    • Cable TV as a necessity
      1. In areas where antenna transmission was unsatisfactory
      2. Hilly or mountainous areas
      3. Cable television developed during the 1970s
    • An alternative to broadcast television
      1. Specialty channels appeared
        • 24-hour channels devoted to specific concepts
        • First focus was on recent movies broadcast without commercials
      2. Customers were required to pay for the service
        • Critics believed nobody would pay for TV service
        • Home Box Office (HBO) proved critics wrong
    • Cable providers expanded the programming spectrum
      1. More specialty channels to add to their roster
        • Sports
        • News
        • Weather
      2. MTV was the music channel concept
      3. Two approaches were considered
        • MTV would show only promotional videos made by record labels
        • MTV would show videos that explored the creative aspects of the medium
        • The second option was championed by former Monkee Michael Nesmith
        • The channel decided on record label promotional videos
      4. MTV premiered on August 1, 1981
      5. First video shown: the Buggles video "Video Killed the Radio Star"
    • The growth of MTV
      1. Many of the first music videos were shot on shoestring budgets
      2. Cable television was not yet widely available
      3. MTV had its biggest audience wherever HBO and other premium channels succeeded
        • Mainly in the Midwest
        • MTV played videos by white mainstream rock artists
      4. MTV did sell advertising
        • Their programming was directed at advertisers' target audience
        • For its first couple of years, MTV's main audience was teenagers in the Midwest
    • MTV and Michael Jackson
      1. In early 1983, Michael Jackson's "Billie Jean" was climbing the pop charts
      2. MTV refused to play Jackson's video
        • They believed viewers would not watch because Jackson is black
        • Jackson's video did get played on MTV in March 1983
        • Jackson's enormous success increased the popularity of the network
      3. Record companies soon considered videos to be crucial promotional tools
        • MTV began to rival FM radio as the place to make or break hit records
        • MTV became an important aspect of the popular-music business during the 1980s
      4. The principal criticism:
        • MTV favored artists' visual aspects over their musical aspects
        • Consequently poor musical quality was overlooked (or ignored)
  • Music video's new elite: Michael Jackson and Madonna
    • Michael Jackson: a quick review
      1. Began with his brothers on Motown records
      2. Also released solo singles:
        • "Rockin' Robin" (p2 r2, 1972)
        • "Ben" (p1 r5, 1972)
      3. Worked with producer Quincy Jones to record Off the Wall (p3 r1, 1979)
    • Michael Jackson in the video age
      1. Immense success with the album Thriller (p1 r1, 1983)
      2. Thriller contained three crossover singles
        • "Billy Jean"
        • "Beat It" (with Eddie Van Halen)
        • "The Girl Is Mine" (with Paul McCartney)
      3. Bad (p1 r1, I987) contained four hit singles:
        • "Bad"
        • "The Way You Make Me Feel"
        • "I Just Can't Stop Loving You"
        • "The Man in the Mirror"
      4. Jackson produced an extended video for "Thriller"
        • Directed by Hollywood's John Landis
        • State-of-the-art special effects
        • Voice-over by horror movie icon Vincent Price
    • Jackson's music in the 1980s
      1. Almost always driven by a strong beat
      2. Shows his roots in 1970s black pop and disco
      3. "Billie Jean" exemplifies Jackson's style
        • Groove laid down in the bass and drums is the musical foundation for the song
        • Vocals project a sense of restrained emotional urgency in the verses
        • Chorus provides the catchy melodic hook
        • Quincy Jones arrangement
        • Representative of Jackson's music in the 1980s
      4. The national network audience defined a national popular culture
        • Music was always an important part of radio
        • National exposure could bestow instant success
    • Jackson earned the title "King of Pop"
      1. Jackson sold tens of millions of records for Epic
      2. He won numerous awards
      3. Enormous dancing skill
      4. Continued the choreography tradition of the Temptations
      5. Became the biggest star in popular music during the 1980s
      6. Jackson was perfect for the newly emerging video age of pop
    • Jackson continued the Motown practice of courting white listeners
      1. Two tracks from Thriller featured prominent white musicians
        • Ex-Beatle Paul McCartney on "The Girl Is Mine"
        • Emerging guitar icon Eddie Van Halen on "Beat It"
      2. Jackson was criticized for selling out to a white audience
      3. It was just good business sense
      4. Jackson was committed to appealing to white and black audiences
    • Madonna (Madonna Louise Ciccone)
      1. Depended as much on the visual aspect of her music as the sonic dimension
      2. Appeal was almost exclusively to white audiences
      3. Worked as a dancer in New York with professional dance troupes
        • Pearl Lange
        • Alvin Ailey
      4. First recordings were successful in the New York dance-club scene
      5. Signed with Sire records: one of the most important labels in New York new wave
      6. 1984 debut album Madonna (p8) contained two hit singles
        • "Borderline" (p 10)
        • "Lucky Star" (p4)
      7. Early 1985 album Like a Virgin (p1) was a pop album chart hit
      8. Four top five singles included:
        • "Like a Virgin" (p1)
        • "Material Girl" (p2)
        • "Angel"
        • "Dress You Up"
      9. True Blue did even better (p1 1986) with three number one singles:
        • "Live to Tell"
        • "Papa Don't Preach"
        • "Open Your Heart"
    • Madonna's music
      1. Often driven by a dance beat
      2. Strong evidence of her dance-club background
      3. "Like a Virgin"
        • Cheerful repeating bass line
        • Layers of synthesizers provide the accompaniment
      4. Madonna expanded her stylistic range
        • Moodier songs such as "Papa Don't Preach"
        • Sensual songs like "Justify My Love" (the video was banned on MTV)
      5. Madonna has played an active creative role on many of her albums
        • Songwriter credits
        • Production credits
    • The Madonna image
      1. One of the most commercially successful artists in the music business
      2. Relentlessly challenged her perception of society's troubling issues
      3. Madonna put on the role of "boy toy" sex object in order to call it into question
      4. She can be linked to previous figures who adopted personae
        • Jim Morrison
        • Alice Cooper
        • David Bowie
        • Kiss
      5. She has explored many social issues
        • Sexual conduct
        • Racial issues
        • Women's roles
        • Spirituality
      6. Detractors have accused her of seeking publicity through titillation
      7. Supporters have praised her methods of bringing important social issues up for debate
      8. Her videos have been studied for their symbolism and profound juxtapositions
  • Sexual references on (and off) MTV
    • Prince
      1. Born Prince Roger Nelson
      2. Used blatant sexual images
        • In his songs
        • In live performance
      3. Musical roots are in the black pop and funk of the 1970s
      4. One of the most prolific artists of the 1980s
      5. Frequently played all the instruments, reminiscent of Stevie Wonder
      6. Wrote and produced other artists
        • The Time
        • Vanity 6
        • Sheila E.
      7. Controlled his projects like George Clinton did
      8. Prince's first four albums did well in the rhythm and blues market
        • Prince (l979) and Controversy (1981) both went to number three and contained hit singles
        • Developed his image as a sexually charged and somewhat androgynous figure
      9. Some songs allow him to project that image in performance
        • "Head"
        • "Jack U Off"
    • Prince's success was second only to Michael Jackson's
      1. The album 1999 (r4 p 9, 1982) crossed into the pop market in 1982 containing two hit singles
        • "1999" (r4 p12)—The title cut from the album
        • "Little Red Corvette" (r15 p6) also from 1999
        • Extensive exposure on MTV ensured his success
      2. Prince's style represented by "1999"
        • Heavy synthesizer
        • Strong beat in the drums
        • Influence of earlier artists: use of different sounding voices for each line in the verse
        • Drifters
        • Sly and the Family Stone
        • Temptations
      3. Critically acclaimed feature film and soundtrack in 1984, Purple Rain
        • Semi-autobiographical
        • Top spot on both pop and rhythm and blues charts
        • Extensive exposure on MTV ensured his success
      4. Singles from Purple Rain also topped the charts
        • "When Doves Cry"
        • "Let's Go Crazy"
      5. Prince blended strong pop sensibility with P-Funk influences
        • Funk grooves
        • Outrageousness
      6. Examples of hit albums released:
        • Around the World in a Day (4r 1p, 1985)
        • Batman (r5 p1, 1989)
        • Diamonds and Pearls (r1 p3, 1991)
    • Janet Jackson
      1. Michael Jackson's younger sister
      2. Regular in the television shows
        • Good Times
        • Diff'rent Strokes
        • Fame
      3. In 1986 she began working with producer-songwriters Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis
        • From the band the Time
        • The Time was produced by Prince
      4. The 1986 album Control topped the pop and rhythm and blues charts
        • Contained six top five singles
        • Projected a new image of confidence and independence
        • Hard-driving hip-hop and funk beats
      5. Rhythm Nation 1814 (1989) topped both charts
        • Contained seven top five hit singles
        • More serious and socially conscious tone than Control
      6. The 1993 album janet: tremendous success
        • Projected a more adult-oriented image
        • Six hit singles
      7. "That's the Way Loves Goes" from janet
        • Rose to the top of the charts
        • Includes samples of James Brown's "Papa Don't Take No Mess"
        • Representative example of the Jackson/Jam/Lewis approach
      8. Controversial Rolling Stone cover photo
        • Jackson is topless
        • Her breasts covered by someone's hands
      9. Strong emphasis on video in Janet Jackson's musical presentation
        • Dancing as important as singing
        • Janet Jackson became one of the most successful artists of the 1990s
    • Olivia Newton-John
      1. From Australia
      2. Her pre-MTV image paved the way for Madonna and Janet Jackson
      3. Series of country-flavored hits in the 1970s
        • "Let Me Be There" (p6, 1973) and
        • "If You Love Me Let Me Know" (p5, 1974)
      4. Easy-listening pop songs
        • "I Honestly Love You" (p1, 1974)
        • "Have You Ever Been Mellow" (p1, 1975)
      5. Starred in the film Grease in 1978
        • The film included hits for Newton-John
        • "You're the One That I Want"
        • Duet with John Travolta
      6. The album Totally Hot (p7, 1979) showed a change in image
        • Introduced a sexier image
        • "A Little More Love" (p3)
      7. Another movie, Xanadu (1980)
        • Less successful than Grease
        • "Magic" (p1, 1980)
      8. The album Physical (P6, 1981) was a chart success
        • "Make a Move on Me" (P5)
        • Title cut "Physical" is among her best-known hits
        • Dance beat
        • Heavy synthesizer tracks
  • British pop on MTV
    • MTV marketing power quickly grew
      1. MTV generated success for new British artists
        • Bow Wow Wow
        • Adam and the Ants
        • A Flock of Seagulls
        • Howard Jones
        • Thomas Dolby
        • ABC
      2. Bands sold records in unexpected places in America
        • Places where they had not performed
        • Places they had not targeted for marketing
    • Duran Duran
      1. One of the most successful new British groups
      2. Second album was the first U.S. success: Rio (p6 uk2, 1983)
        • "Hungry like the Wolf" (p3 uk5)
        • The video went into MTV rotation
        • Sparked interest in band's 1981 first album, Duran Duran (p 10, 1983)
        • That album was number three in the UK in 1981
      3. Seven and the Ragged Tiger (p8 uk1, 1983) was a hit album
        • "The Reflex" (p1 uk1)
        • International hit
    • Culture Club
      1. Exploited the visual side of their act.
      2. Fronted by singer George "Boy George" O'Dowd
        • Dressed in women's clothes
        • Sported long dreadlocks
      3. Music was modeled after the Brill Building approach
        • Catchy tunes and hooks
        • Boy George's singing style
        • Influenced by 1960s and 1970s black pop singers
        • Fluid and laid back
      4. Kissing to Be Clever (p14 uk5, 1983)
        • 3 top ten hits
        • "Do You Really Want to Hurt Me" (p2 uk1) was one of them
        • Played heavily on MTV and on radio
      5. The next album: Colour by Numbers (p2 uk1, 1983)
        • Three more top 10 hits
        • "Karma Chameleon" (p 1 uk1) got heavy exposure
    • Eurhythmics
      1. Singer Annie Lennox and Keyboardist David Stewart
      2. Synth pop and soul-influenced vocals
      3. Abstract art film approach to videos
      4. Sweet Dreams (Are Made of This) (p15 uk3, 1983) was their debut album
        • Title song of the album reached number one in the United States (uk2)
        • Video for the single was avant-garde
        • Cow attending a corporate board meeting
        • Corporate board meeting in a pasture
      5. They continued to release successful albums
        • Their later albums did better in England than in the United States
        • Touch (p7 uk1, 1984)
        • Be Yourself Tonight (p9 uk3, 1985)
        • We Too Are One (uk1, 1989)
    • Tears for Fears
      1. Band is named after primal scream therapy of Arthur Janov
        • Keyboardist Roland Orzabal
        • Bassist Curt Smith
      2. Stylistic approach is British synthesizer pop
      3. First album, The Hurting (uk1), was a UK hit but not successful in the United States
      4. Songs from the Big Chair (p 1 uk2, 1985) was an international hit
        • Two number one American hits
        • "Everybody Wants to Rule the World" (uk2)
        • "Shout" (uk4)
        • Heavy rotation on MTV
        • Reminiscent of progressive rock
        • The lyrics deal with serious topics
        • Music is sometimes complicated
        • No breaks between songs on the albums
      5. The Seeds of Love (p8 uk1, 1989) was the last big record for the band
  • The hippie aesthetic in videos
    • Music videos pushed the conceptual boundaries
      1. Comparable to concept albums of the 1970s
        • Concept albums pushed musical boundaries
        • Videos explored ways to fuse images to music
      2. Artistic ambition is present in both mediums
        • Progressive rock explored serious themes
        • The album package was the focus of 1970s progressive rock
        • Music videos became the focus of the same kind of creative inspiration in the 1980s
  • The continuing development of New Wave
    • The Police
      1. Built their career out of their music rather than MTV exposure
        • Andy Summers (guitar)
        • Sting (bass and vocals)
        • American drummer Stewart Copeland
      2. Went through a stylistic evolution
        • Started with a punk-oriented style
        • Gradually became more sophisticated
        • Intricate musical arrangements
        • Poetic and intellectual lyrics
      3. First hit single, "Roxanne" (p32, 1979) has a strong reggae influence
      4. Their first album, Outlandos d'Amour (p23, 1979) relies on punk simplicity
      5. Fifth album title, Synchronicity (p1 ukl, 1983) drawn from the psychological writings of Carl Jung
      6. Eight singles in the American top ten during the early 1980s
        • "Every Breath You Take" (p1, 1983) went to number one
        • Four of their five studio albums and five singles went to number one in the UK
      7. "Don't Stand So Close to Me" exemplifies their musical approach
        • Skillfully executed music
        • Guitar part is washes of sound
        • Little emphasis on soloing
        • Drumming is a complex rhythmic accompaniment
        • Mysterious lyric atmosphere about a teacher's romantic attraction to his young student
    • U2
      1. Formed in Ireland
      2. Approach similar to that of the Police in their music
        • Simple songs
        • Innovative arrangements
        • Poetic quality in singer Bono's lyrics
        • Lead Guitarist The Edge creates rich guitar textures
      3. Early albums were moderately successful
        • War (p12 uk1, 1983)
        • The Unforgettable Fire (p12 uk1, 1984)
      4. Enormously successful albums began with The Joshua Tree (p1 uk1, 1987)
      5. Worked with producers Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois
      6. "Pride (In the Name of Love)"
        • Repeated-note guitar figures soaked in echo
        • One of the band's most recognizable sonic signatures
        • Lyrics about people who have given their lives in the name of love
        • In impassioned vocal lines the chorus illustrates the cause for which their lives were given
      7. Band's success continues to the present day
    • Split Enz
      1. Formed in the 1970s in Australia
      2. Led by brothers Tim and Neil Finn
        • Experimental, post-psychedelic band
        • Acquired strong pop style by the end of the '70s
        • Beatles style tunes
        • Neil Finn later formed Crowded House
    • Men at Work
      1. Sounded similar to the Police
      2. Business as Usual (uk1 p1, 1982) contained two hits
        • "Who Can It Be Now" (uk45 p1)
        • "Down Under" (uk1 p1)
    • XTC
      1. Formed in England
      2. Led by the songwriting of guitarist Andy Partridge and bassist Colin Moulding
      3. Best known for the album Black Sea (uk16 p41, 1980) with the single "Generals and Majors"
    • Squeeze
      1. British Invasion influences
      2. Style compared to Beatles
      3. Led by songwriters Chris Difford and Glenn Tilbrook
        • Soulful lead vocals of Paul Carrack
        • British press compared songwriters to Lennon/McCartney
      4. British chart success
        • The single "Cool for Cats" (uk2, 1979)
        • Album East Side Story (uk19 p44, 1981)
  • College rock underground
    • University of Georgia
      1. College rock started in Athens, Georgia
        • Home of the University of Georgia
        • R.E.M. formed in Athens, Georgia
        • The band was involved in the origin of the college rock scene
      2. The college rock scene nurtured an independent attitude
        • Celebrated its lack of affiliation with major labels
        • College rock radio played recordings released by small independent labels
        • College rock radio played recordings released by the bands themselves
        • Noncommercial so no corporate influence on the stations
    • R.E.M.
      1. Led by guitarist Peter Buck and vocalist Michael Stipe
      2. String of successful albums in the second half of the 1980s
      3. Inspiration from late 1970s new wave
        • Strongly influenced by new wave's sense of irony and alienation
      4. More chart success in the United States than the UK
      5. The band's fifth album, Document, rose to number ten on the charts in 1987
      6. The single "The One I Love" hit number nine on the American charts
      7. 1991's Out of Time reached number one in the United States and UK
      8. Two singles on Out of Time enhanced the album's success
        • "Losing My Religion" (p4 uk19)
        • "Shiny Happy People" (p10 uk6)
    • The Smiths
      1. Came up through the British underground scene
        • Popular only in England
        • Their music inspired the college rock scene in the states
      2. Built around songwriting talents of guitarist Johnny Marr and vocalist Morrissey
      3. The Smiths' albums topped the British charts
        • The album The Smiths (uk2, 1984) contained the single "What Difference Does It Make?" (uk12)
        • Meat Is Murder (uk1, 1985) was a very successful release in the UK
        • The Queen Is Dead (uk2, 1986) also successful in the UK
  • Girls Just Wanna Have Fun
    • Late 1970s women in rock
      1. Blondie and the B-52s employed the early 1960s girl-group image
        • Musically
        • Visually
      2. Other women nurtured more aggressive and sensual female images in the early 1980s
        • Pat Benatar
        • Olivia Newton-John
    • The Go-Go's
      1. First successful all-female new wave band
      2. Fronted by singer Belinda Carlisle
      3. The Go-Go's drew from pre-hippie '60s images
        • Band name is derived from "go-go girls"
        • Go-Go girls were mini-skirted dancers employed by nightclubs
        • Their job was to dance in highly visible locations
      4. Beauty and the Beat (p1, 1981) contained the single "We Got the Beat" (p2)
      5. Carlisle became a solo artist after the band's short-lived success
        • Her second album, Heaven on Earth (p13 uk4, 1987) contained three hits
        • One of them, "Heaven Is a Place on Earth," topped American and British charts
    • Cyndi Lauper
      1. First album: She's so Unusual (p4 uk16, 1984)
        • Anthem for girl power in rock, "Girls Just Want to Have Fun" (p2 uk2)
        • "Time after Time" (p1 uk3)
        • "She Bop" (p3 uk46) has a thinly veiled lyric about female masturbation
    • Bangles
      1. From California
      2. First album: Different Light (p2 uk3, 1986) contained hit singles
        • "Manic Monday" (p2 uk2) written by Prince
        • "Walk like an Egyptian" (p1 uk3)
        • Folk rock instrumental sound
        • Smooth vocal harmonies
      3. Other examples of women in bands who sing and play instruments
        • Heart
        • Fleetwood Mac
        • The Pretenders
        • The Talking Heads
        • Go-Go' s
  • The New Traditionalists
    • Making use of earlier rock styles
      1. Two ways to utilize elements of earlier rock became clarified
        • In an ironic way so as to reject the corporate rock of the 1970s
        • To embrace it because the artist truly believed it was better than more current styles
    • Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
      1. Style and sound was built around nostalgic 1960s folk-rock
        • Jingle-jangle Rickenbacker electric 12-string guitars
        • Thoughtful lyrics
        • Catchy melodies
      2. Originally considered new wave but reclassified as new traditionalist
        • Didn't really change his sound—consistently maintained what was working
        • More success in the United States than in the UK at first
      3. String of successful albums and singles in the states through most of the 1980s
        • Hard Promises (p5 uk32, 1981)
        • "The Waiting" (p19) received ample airplay
        • Southern Accents (p7 uk23, 1985)
        • "Don't Come Around Here No More" (p13)
        • First solo album: Full Moon Fever (p3 uk8, 1989)
        • "Free Fallin'" (p7)
        • "I Won't Back Down" (p12)
    • The Traveling Wilburys
      1. All-star, roots-of-rock-and-roll band
        • led by ex-Beatle George Harrison
        • Tom Petty
        • Bob Dylan
        • Roy Orbison
        • Jeff Lynne from Electric Light Orchestra
      2. First album: Traveling Wilburys Volume 1 (p3 uk16, 1988)
      3. "Handle with Care" (p45 uk2l) featured members trading lead vocal parts
      4. Second album was titled Traveling Wilburys Volume 3 (p11 uk14, 1990)
    • Bruce Springsteen and the E-Street Band
      1. New Jersey-based singer-songwriter
        • Springsteen's voice projected the image of an average working-class guy
        • Reminiscent of a late 1950s or 1960s white rock and roll singer
        • Lyrics draw from the Dylan approach
        • Reflection on common emotional and social problems
        • Simple music concepts
        • Stax influences
      2. Notable success began with his third album: Born to Run (p3 uk17, 1975)
        • Phil Spector's influence in the instrumental arrangement
      3. Springsteen's greatest success was in the 1980s
        • Fifth album, The River (p1 uk2, 1980)
        • "Hungry Heart" (p5) featured on the album
        • Southern Accents (p7 uk23, 1985)
        • Nebraska (p3 uk3, 1982) was more introspective
      4. Born in the USA (p1 uk1 1984) had six top ten American hits
        • "Glory Days" (p5 uk17) among them
        • "Born in the USA" among them
      5. The album Live 1977-1985 (p1 uk4, 1986)
      6. Tunnel of Love (p1 uk1, 1987)
      7. Released two albums simultaneously in 1992
        • Human Touch (p2 uk1)
        • Lucky Town (p3 uk2)
      8. "Born in the USA"
        • Describes the decay of American values in the industrial heartland
        • From the perspective of someone who is powerless to bring on change
        • Mistakenly interpreted by the Reagan administration as an embrace of American values
        • Form is simple but vague in the middle
        • 2-bar melodic theme constantly repeated over an 8-bar chord progression
        • Form and melody suggest indecision and confusion
        • Vietnam veteran in the lyrics is not sure which way to turn
    • John Mellencamp
      1. Began under the name John Cougar
      2. Central figure in new traditionalism Americana
        • Projected image of a homespun small-town Midwesterner
        • Interested in social justice and emotional self-understanding
      3. Radio hit "I Need a Lover" in 1979
      4. Third album, American Fool (1982) contained two hits
        • "Hurts So Good" (p2)
        • "Jack and Diane" (p1)
      5. Followed up with Scarecrow (p2, 1985)
        • "Small Town" (p6) featured on that album
        • "Small Town" is similar to Springsteen's "Born in the USA"
    • Dire Straits
      1. Led by singer-songwriter-guitarist Mark Knopfler
      2. Employed a no-nonsense approach in their music
        • Strong respect for older styles
        • Simpler, more transparent approach to production
      3. Album Dire Straits (p2 uk5), included a hit single
        • "Sultans of Swing" (p4)
        • About the virtues of anonymous jazz virtuosos
      4. Album Brothers in Arms (p1 uk1, 1985), containing a hit single
        • "Money for Nothing" (p1 uk4)
        • Included Sting on vocals
        • Innovative music video
    • The Stray Cats
      1. Dedicated to rockabilly
        • Brian Setzer: leader, vocalist, guitar virtuoso
        • Drummer Slim Jim Phantom
        • Bassist Lee Rocker
        • Setzer is considered the world's foremost rockabilly guitarist
      2. Originally from Long Island
      3. Moved to London in late 1970s
      4. Series of British hits
        • "Runaway Boys" (uk9, 1980)
        • "Rock This Town" (uk9, 1981)
      5. MTV videos helped bring success in the United States
        • "Rock This Town" (p9)
        • "Stray Cat Strut" (p3)
      6. First EMI America release, Built for Speed, (p2) was successful in the United States
      7. Formed the Brian Setzer Big Band in the 1990s
        • Resurgence of Setzer's career with the album Dirty Boogie (1998)
        • Rose to the number nine spot in the states
        • Two Grammies
  • 1980s Blue-Eyed Soul
    • Hall and Oates
      1. Daryl Hall and John Oates
        • Strongly influenced by 1960s and 1970s black pop styles
        • Hall grew up in Philadelphia
        • Worked with Leon Huff, Kenny Gamble, and Thorn Bell
      2. First American hits in 1976
        • "Sara Smile" (p4, 1976)
        • "Rich Girl" (p1, 1977)
      3. Several hits through the first half of the 80s
        • Private Eyes (p5 uk8 1981)
        • "Private Eyes" - the title cut of the album
        • "I Can't Go for That" also on that album
        • Big Bam Boom (p5 uk28, 1984) had the single "Out of Touch" (p1 1984)
    • Wham!
      1. Duo of George Michael and Andrew Ridgeley
      2. Michael was the main creative force
        • Wrote most of the songs
        • Produced the albums
      3. Approach Similar to that of Hall and Oates
      4. Early work inspired by 1960s and 1970s soul singers
      5. First album chart success in the UK: Fantastic (uk1, 1983)
      6. First U.S. success, Make It Big (p1 uk1, 1984), had hit singles
        • "Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go" (p1)
        • "Careless Whisper" (uk1)
        • "Everything She Wants"
        • "Freedom" (p3 uk1)
      7. Michael decided to go solo
      8. Faith (p1 uk1, 1987)
    • Michael Bolton
      1. Continued the blue-eyed soul sound through the late 1980s into the 1990s
        • "That's What Love Is All About" (p19, 1987)
        • "(Sittin' on) the Dock of the Bay" (p 11 1988)
        • Soul Provider (p3 uk4, 1990)
        • "How Am I Supposed to Live without You" (p1 uk3)
        • "When a Man Loves a Woman" (p1, 1991)
  • Continuation of progressive rock and mainstream rock
    • Simplification of progressive rock
      1. Early 1970s progressive rock style: very long and complex
        • Yes
        • Genesis
        • Emerson, Lake and Palmer
      2. Later 1970s progressive rock style: simplified
        • Styx
        • Kansas
      3. Early 1970s musicians adapted and simplified their style
      4. Consequently they had greater commercial success in the 1980s
    • Genesis
      1. Peter Gabriel was replaced by Phil Collins on lead vocals
      2. Album And Then There Were Three (pl4 uk1, 1978) shifted toward a pop style
      3. A series of more pop style albums and singles followed
        • Single "Follow You Follow Me" (p23 uk7)
        • Album Duke (p11 uk1, 1980)
        • Album Abacab (p7 uk1, 1981)
        • Album Invisible Touch (p3 uk1 1986)
        • Single "Invisible Touch" (p1 uk15)
      4. Members went on to release successful solo albums
    • Phil Collins: solo artist
      1. Removed certain characteristics from the Genesis style
        • Clever and/or philosophical lyrics
        • Sophisticated harmonies
        • Extended forms
      2. Replaced the complexities of Genesis style with more radio-friendly elements:
        • Direct lyrics
        • Simple harmony
        • Tight arrangements
      3. Released Face Value (p7 uk1) in 1981
      4. The single "In the Air Tonight" (p19 uk2) received ample radio play
      5. No Jacket Required (p1 uk1, 1985) had two hit singles
        • "One More Night" (p1 uk4)
        • "Sussudio" (p1 uk12)
      6. Very successful Collins album: . . . But Seriously (p1 uk1, 1989)
      7. "Another Day in Paradise"(p1 uk2) on that album
    • Michael Rutherford (Genesis bassist)
      1. Formed Mike + the Mechanics
      2. Eponymous debut album did moderately well (p26, 1985) with two top ten hits
        • "Silent Running"
        • "All I Need Is a Miracle" (p6, 1986)
        • Successful album: The Living Years (p13 uk2, 1988)
        • Hit single "The Living Years" (p 1 uk2)
      3. The Jordan approach to blues
        • Dance tempos and rhythms found in big band
        • Reduced instrumentation: rhythm section and his saxophone
        • Upbeat humorous lyrics and stage antics
        • Influenced groups like the Coasters and Chuck Berry
    • Peter Gabriel
      1. Released four solo albums
        • All were named Peter Gabriel
        • The fourth was titled Security in the United States
      2. Breakthrough album in 1986 So (p2 uk1)
        • "Sledgehammer" (p1 uk4)
        • "Big Time" (p8 uk13)
        • Innovative videos
        • Lots of MTV exposure
      3. "Sledgehammer" draws from the roots of rock and roll
        • Lyrics are tribute to the hokum blues in Joe Turner's "Shake, Rattle, and Roll" (l954)
        • Playfully allude to sexuality
        • Double meaning title of the song
        • Two-part form
        • Reflects southern soul approach
        • Loose jam at the end of the song
    • Yes
      1. Singer Jon Anderson and keyboardist Rick Wakeman left
      2. Replaced by Trevor Horn and Geoff Downes
        • Trevor Horn and Geoff Downes also existed separately as the Buggles
        • The Buggles' "Video Killed the Radio Star" inaugurated MTV
      3. The last 1970s progressive rock album: Drama (p18 uk2, 1980)
      4. Geoff Downes, Trevor Horn, and Steve Howe left
      5. Yes recruited South African singer-songwriter-guitarist Trevor Rabin
      6. Jon Anderson returned
      7. Released the album 90125 (p5 uk16, 1983)
      8. "Owner of a Lonely Heart" single from 90125 was their first number one in the U.S.
    • Asia
      1. Howe (guitar) and Downes (keyboards) from Yes
      2. Carl Palmer (drums)
      3. John Wetton from King Crimson (vocals)
      4. Short but successful career
        • Band's first album Asia (p1 uk11 1982) had two hit singles
        • "Heat of the Moment" (p4) and "Don't Cry" (p10)
        • Next album Alpha (p6 uk5, 1983) was successful as well
      5. Howe formed G.T.R. with former Genesis guitarist Steve Hackett
        • That band's only album, G.T.R. (p 11, 1986)
        • "When the Heart Rules the Mind" (p14) was an American hit
    • Emerson, Lake and Powell
      1. Keith Emerson and Greg Lake regrouped with drummer Cozy Powell
      2. Released Emerson, Lake & Powell (p23, 1986)
  • Bands and artists who continued on
    • The 1980s made it clear that rock careers could span decades
      1. Foreigner
        • 4 (p1 uk5, 1981)
        • Agent Provocateur (p4 uk1, 1984)
        • "I Want to Know What Love Is" (p1 uk1)
      2. Styx
        • Kilroy Was Here (p3, 1983)
        • "Mr. Roboto" (p3)
      3. Boston
        • Third Stage (p1 1986)
        • "Amanda" (p1 )
      4. David Bowie
        • Let's Dance (p4 uk1, 1983)
      5. Billy Joel
        • An Innocent Man (p4 uk2, 1983)
        • "Tell Her about It" (p1 uk4) and
        • "Uptown Girl" (p3 uk1)
        • Storm Front (p1 uk5, 1989)
        • "We Didn't Start the Fire" (p1 uk7)
      6. Rolling Stones
        • Tattoo You (pt uk2, 1981)
        • The classic "Start Me Up" (p2 uk7)
        • Undercover (p4 uk3)
        • Dirty Work (p4 uk4, 1986)
        • Steel Wheels (p3 uk2, 1989)
      7. Paul McCartney
        • 1982's Tug of War (p1 uk1)
    • Old school newcomers
      1. Some new bands arrived with earlier styles
      2. They were clearly influenced by earlier artists
    • AC/DC
      1. Influenced by the British blues revival (Zeppelin or Deep Purple)
        • Powerful guitar playing by Angus Young
        • High raspy vocals by Bon Scott (replaced by Brian Johnson)
      2. Formed in Australia in 1973 and built their popularity there
      3. Released a consistent string of hit records that influenced new California heavy metal bands
        • Broke on to the U.S. charts with Highway to Hell (p 17) in 1979
        • Back in Black (p4, 1980)
        • Dirty Deeds Done Cheap (p3, 1981)
    • Huey Lewis and the News
      1. Built their image on nostalgic rock styles from earlier times
      2. Sunny feel-good songs
      3. Formed in San Francisco in 1980
      4. Radio friendly songs that received generous airplay
      5. Regular rotation on MTV
      6. String of hits that spanned the first half of the 1980s
        • Exemplified by their 1986 "Hip to Be Square" (p3)
        • "Do You Believe in Love" (p7, 1982)
        • The album Sports (p1, 1983)
        • The album Fore! (p1, 1986)
        • "The Power of Love" (p1, 1985) appeared in the film Back to the Future

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