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Chapter 8
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  • The hippie aesthetic
    • Two important changes occurred in 1970s rock music
      1. Initiated by 1960s pioneers:
        • Beatles
        • Beach Boys
        • Bob Dylan
      2. Rock music shifted from emphasis on the single to the album
      3. Rock shifted from music for dancing to music for listening
    • The expansion of rock musical styles was accomplished by incorporating other musical styles
      1. Classical music
      2. Electronic music
      3. Jazz
    • Focus on craft and a distinctly artistic approach to music creation can be called "hippie aesthetic"
      1. Emphasis on studio technology
      2. Rock musician has a responsibility to create sophisticated music using whatever means is available
      3. Music should stand up to repeated listening
      4. Lyrics should deal with important issues
      5. Musical ability is highly valued—fans voted on who is the best in their field:
        • Best Guitarist
        • Best Keyboardist
        • Best Drummer
        • Best Bassist
        • Best Vocalist
        • Typical categories like Best Album and Best New Act
      6. This attitude was common among jazz musicians
      7. Rock musicians now took on the same attitude
      8. The hippie aesthetic unifies many diverse styles through the decade
        • Yes
        • Eagles
        • Allman Brothers Band
        • Steely Dan
        • Alice Cooper
  • Blues-based British rock
    • Roots in the Rolling Stones, Yardbirds, and Cream
      1. Rolling Stones introduced the Chicago electric blues to white American teenagers in the 1960s
        • Muddy Waters
        • Howlin' Wolf
      2. Yardbirds came in the wake of the Stones with talented guitarists
        • Eric Clapton
        • Jeff Beck
        • Jimmy Page
      3. 1970s British bands built on the stylistic foundation established by the Stones, the Yardbirds, and Cream
        • Deep Purple
        • Led Zeppelin
        • Black Sabbath
      4. The Stones became extremely successful by returning to their blues roots with hit 1970s albums
        • Sticky Fingers (p1 uk1, 1971)
        • Exile on Main Street (p1 uk1, 1971)
        • Goat's Head Soup (p1 uk1, 1973)
      5. Yardbirds alumni also continued through the 1970s and beyond
        • Eric Clapton played with Derek and the Dominoes
        • Went solo and had his first hit with "I Shot the Sheriff" (p1 uk9, 1974)
        • Jeff Beck fronted several bends that moved toward jazz-fusion approach
        • Jimmy Page formed the New Yardbirds and renamed the band Led Zeppelin
      6. Focus was put on guitar virtuosity
        • Jimi Hendrix
        • Yardbirds guitarists (particularly Clapton)
    • Led Zeppelin
      1. One of the most successful new British groups in the 1970s
        • Eight number one albums in the UK
        • Six number ones in the U.S.
        • Resisted releasing singles and focused on creating albums
      2. Blend of traditional electric blues, acoustic folk, and psychedelic experimentation
      3. All three styles appear on their first album (actually recorded and released in 1969)
        • "Babe I'm Gonna Leave You" exemplifies acoustic abilities
        • "Good Times, Bad Times" demonstrates harder blues rock
        • "Dazed and Confused" is good psychedelic experimentalism
        • On live performances of "Dazed and Confused" Page uses a violin bow during his solo
      4. "Whole Lotta Love," on the second album, blends harder rock with psychedelia
      5. Their fourth untitled album (p2 uk1, 1972) contained their best example of a blend of all three styles
        • "Stairway to Heaven"
        • Acoustic guitar opening backed at first only by recorders
        • This becomes accompaniment to Plant's vocals
        • Electric twelve-string guitar is added
        • Bass and drums are added
        • Final section moves into heavy rock
        • Blues-influenced electric guitar solo
        • High wailing vocals
        • Lyrics deal with the question of spiritual enlightenment
      6. Led Zeppelin lyrics often dealt overtly with sexuality
      7. Page produced all the albums
        • Master of layering guitar tracks
        • "The Song Remains the Same" from Houses of the Holy (p1 uk1, 1973) is a good example
      8. "Kashmir," from Physical Graffiti (p1 uk1, 1975) deals with ancient Eastern spirituality and wisdom
    • "Whole Lotta Love": Hippie Blues Rock
      1. Adaptation of a Willie Dixon blues number called "You Need Love"
        • Now credited to Dixon and all four members of Led Zeppelin
        • Blues is clearly a central component
        • The song also has elements of psychedelia
      2. Structural elements of "Whole Lotta Love"
        • The song begins as a simple verse-chorus form
        • Two verse-chorus pairs based on the same music after the brief guitar-riff introduction
        • A long central section follows
      3. Distinctively psychedelic flavor to this section
        • Spacey sounds
        • Stereo effects
        • Plant's moaning
        • Guitar solo displays psychedelic blues-rock virtuosity
        • Similar to guitar playing by Eric Clapton and Jimi Hendrix
      4. Song returns to the beginning verse-chorus form
      5. Ends with a coda comprised of Plant's free-form vocalization and fade-out on opening guitar riff
      6. Overall structure is an altered form of the AABA simple verse-chorus:
        • Verse-chorus pairs are the A section (there are two of these)
        • Contrasting section in the middle is considered the B section
        • The A returns after the middle section (B)
        • Large-scale AABA pattern becomes clear
      7. This large-scale AABA will be called "compound AABA"
        • This compound AABA is used often by bands in the 1970s
        • "Whole Lotta Love" exemplifies this altered form that
      8. The basic AABA discussed earlier will still refer to smaller sections within the song
    • Deep Purple
      1. Formed in London in 1968
        • Jon Lord (keyboards)
        • Ritchie Blackmore (guitar)
        • Ian Paice (drums)
        • Singer Rod Evans (replaced by Ian Gillan)
        • Bassist Nick Simper (replaced by Roger Glover)
      2. Number four single in 1968 with a version of Joe South's "Hush"
      3. Mixed its blues-based rock with classical music
        • One of the first albums to use a symphony orchestra
        • Concerto for Group and Orchestra (uk26, 1970)
      4. The lineup with Gillan and Glover had several hit albums in the 1970s
        • Deep Purple in Rock (uk4, 1970)
        • Fireball (p32 uk1, 1971)
        • Machine Head (p7 uk1, 1971)
        • "Smoke on the Water" and "Highway Star" were on Machine Head
        • These two songs have been staples of rock radio stations ever since
      5. "Highway Star"
        • Was considered influential in the development of 1970s heavy metal
        • Also a good example of blending rock and classical music
        • Also true to the hippie aesthetic: two extended instrumental solos
        • Solos utilize harmonic concepts similar to Baroque music
      6. "Lazy"—also on the same album—incorporates psychedelic ideas into blues rock
        • Begins with a moody organ solo
        • Blend of church music, blues, and a bit of phantom-of-the-opera
        • Reminiscent of Iron Butterfly's "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida"
        • Strong blues solos
        • Falsetto screams that became the model for much rock singing of the late 1970s and 1980s
      7. Gillan was featured on the concept album Jesus Christ Superstar
        • Written by Tim Rice/Andrew Lloyd Webber
        • Gillan sang the part of Jesus
      8. Deep Purple members went on to found other groups at the end of the 1970s
        • Rainbow (Blackmore)
        • Whitesnake (David Coverdale—he replaced Gillan in 1974)
        • Gillan
    • Black Sabbath introduces gothic elements into metal
      1. Started as a blues band
      2. Decided to use horror as a trademark to get noticed
      3. Renamed their band after the Boris Karloff film Black Sabbath
        • Singer Ozzy Osborne
        • Guitarist Tony Iommi
        • Bassist Geezer Butler
        • Drummer Bill Ward
      4. First track on their first album, Black Sabbath (p23 uk8, 1970), sounds like it belongs in a horror film
        • Tri-tone riff follows distant church bells
        • Tri-tone is an interval nicknamed the "devil's interval" because of its dissonant quality
      5. Next album, Paranoid (p12 uk1, 1970) contains "Iron Man"
        • Begins with ominous low-pitched tolling of guitars
        • Ozzy's distorted voice intoning, "I am iron man"
        • The song remains based in blues riffs and structures
        • Guitar, bass, and voice often perform unison variants of the same riff
      6. Master of Reality (p8 uk5, 1971) and Black Sabbath, Vol. 4 (p13 uk8, 1972) were commercial successes
        • These four albums made extensive use of darker images "Black Sabbath", "Paranoid", "Master of Reality", and "Black Sabbath Vol. 4".
        • That idea would become central to subsequent heavy metal music
    • The Small Faces and Humble Pie
      1. Originally called the Small Faces
        • Guitarist Steve Marriott
        • Bassist Ronnie Lane
        • Drummer Kenney Jones
      2. Several successful albums in the UK and a hit single in the states in the late 1960s
        • The album Ogden's Nut Gone Flake (uk1, 1968) was a post-Sgt Pepper concept album
        • "Itchicoo Park" (p16 uk3, 1967) was their only U.S. hit
      3. Marriott left in 1969 to form Humble Pie, a blues-rock band
    • Small Faces name shortened to just the Faces
      1. Members of Jeff Beck's band were recruited:
        • Singer Rod Stewart
        • Stewart's husky gravel voice is one of rock music's great distinctive voices
        • Guitarist Ron Wood
        • Wood was playing bass with Jeff Beck's group
      2. Faces began having transatlantic hits
        • A Nod's as Good as a Wink to a Blind Horse (p6 uk2, 1971)—their third album
        • "Stay with Me" (p17 uk6, 1971)
        • The fourth album: Ooh La La (p21 uk1, 1973)
        • "Cindy Incidentally" (p48 uk2, 1973)
      3. Stewart began releasing hit solo albums and singles during the early 1970s
        • The album Every Picture Tells a Story (pl uk1, 1971)
        • Containing the single "Maggie May" (p1 uk1, 1971)
        • The album Never a Dull Moment (p2 uk1, 1972)
        • Containing the single "You Wear It Well" (p13 uk1, 1972)
        • Sing It Again Rod (p1 uk1, 1973)
        • The album Atlantic Crossing (p9 uk1, 1975)
      4. The Faces disbanded in 1974
        • Stewart went solo—eventually releasing disco hits
        • Wood joined the Rolling Stones
        • Kenny Jones joined the Who after drummer Keith Moon died of an overdose
    • Humble Pie
      1. Steve Marriott was the leader—voice was similar to Rod Stewart's
        • Guitarist Peter Frampton
        • Bassist Greg Ridley
        • Drummer Jerry Shirley
      2. British hit with "Natural Born Bugie" (uk4, 1969)
      3. Third album Performance—Rockin' the Fillmore (p21 uk32, 1971) was international hit
        • "I Don't Need No Doctor"
        • Cover of Ray Charles's "Hallelujah (I Love Her So)"
      4. Frampton then left the band for a solo career (replaced by Dave Clemson)
      5. Continued commercial success through early 1970s
        • Smokin' (p6 uk28, 1972)
        • "30 Days in the Hole"
        • Eat It (p13 uk34, 1973)
  • American blues and southern rock
    • Southern rock: a term that originated in the north and on the west coast
      1. Writers and media used the term in conjunction with southeastern bands
        • Means of categorizing the music from southern states
        • Served as a means of marketing an image
        • Musicians themselves didn't necessarily think much about it
    • Allman Brothers Band and southern rock
      1. Duane Allman: a favorite studio guitarist at Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals
      2. Put a band together in 1969
        • Bassist Barry Oakley
        • Guitarist Dickey Betts
        • Drummers Jai Johnny Johnson ("Jaimoe") and Butch Trucks
        • Brother Gregg Allman on vocals and organ
      3. Three important influences on their music:
        • Blues
        • British blues-rock bands
        • Lengthy improvised solos in the style of the San Francisco psychedelic bands
      4. Allman Brothers Band has an important music industry aspect
        • Their manager, Phil Walden, established Capricorn Records in Macon, Georgia
        • Capricorn and Macon became the center for southern rock artists in the 1970s
      5. The band's first successful album was their third—a double live album
        • Live at the Fillmore East (p13, 1971)
        • "Whipping Post" (from their first album) exemplifies their live blues soloing abilities
        • Comparable to Led Zeppelin's augmentation of the blues
      6. Duane Allman was killed in a motorcycle accident in 1971 and Barry Oakley in 1972
        • Lamar Williams was added on bass
        • Chuck Leavell was added on piano
      7. Eat a Peach (p4, 1972)
        • One of their most successful albums
        • "Ramblin' Man" (p2) by Dickey Betts demonstrates country influences
      8. Win, Lose, or Draw (p5, 1975) was their last successful album with that lineup of band members
    • Lynyrd Skynyrd
      1. Named after a high school teacher they didn't like—they re-spelled the name
      2. Signed with Al Kooper's label, Sounds of the South, in Atlanta
        • Kooper had played on most of Bob Dylan's records between 1965 and 1966
        • The band thought they shouldn't be on the same label as the Allman Brothers
        • Kooper's production style was more radio friendly than the Allman Brothers' sound
      3. Several successful albums during the 1970s
        • Songs featured lots of guitar
        • Clear vocals by Ronnie Van Zant
        • Lyric topics often focused on stories of life in the south
        • First album was a hit: nineteen with Pronounced Leh-nerd Skin-nerd (p27, 1973)
        • Last hit album: Street Survivors (p5 uk13, 1977)
      4. Several hit singles
        • "Sweet Home Alabama" (p8, 1974)
        • "Saturday Night Special" (p27, 1975)
        • "What's Your Name" (p13, 1977)
        • "Free Bird" was on the live album One More from the Road (p9 uk17, 1976)
        • A staple on rock radio playlists ever since
      5. Ronnie Van Zant was killed in plane crash in 1977 days after the release of Street Survivors
    • Marshall Tucker Band
      1. Nobody in the band is named Marshall Tucker
        • Formed in 1971 by two brothers:
        • Tommy Caldwell (bass)
        • Toy Caldwell (guitar)
      2. Eight albums in the Top 40 (six with Capricorn and two with Warner Bros.) during the 1970s including:
        • The Marshall Tucker Band (p29, 1973)
        • Searchin ' for a Rainbow (p15, 1975)
      3. Their most successful single was "Heard It in a Love Song" (p 14, 1977)
        • Stronger country influence than blues
    • Charlie Daniels Band
      1. Daniels had been playing professionally since the late 1950s
      2. Studio musician in Nashville during the 1960s
      3. Played on the Dylan sessions in the late 1960s
      4. Formed his own band in the early 1970s
        • Style is more country than rock
        • Daniels is older than the other southern rock musicians
        • Southern rockers looked up to him as a mentor
      5. Five Top 40 albums between 1975 and 1982
        • Million Mile Reflections (p5, 1979)
        • Full Moon (p 11, 1980)
      6. Daniels had a number three hit single in 1979
        • "The Devil Went Down to Georgia"
        • That song became Charlie Daniels's trademark song
    • Other Southern rock bands of mention that had some degree of success
      1. .38 Special
        • Wild-Eyed Southern Boys (p18, 1981)
        • Strength in Numbers (p17, 1986)
      2. Wet Willie
      3. Outlaws
      4. Grinderswitch
      5. Blackfoot
  • American blues-based rock outside the southeastern states
    • Santana
      1. Emerged from the San Francisco psychedelic scene in 1969
      2. Led by Carlos Santana
        • Featured organist/vocalist Greg Rolie
        • Rolie later formed Journey
        • Gained recognition at the Woodstock festival
      3. Distinctive style that incorporated several influences
        • Lengthy improvisations based on jazz and blues
        • Latin rhythms and percussion
      4. Several successful singles and albums during the 1970s
        • Santana (p4 uk26, 1969)
        • "Evil Ways" (p9, 1970) was the band's first hit
        • Abraxas (p1 uk7, 1970)
        • "Black Magic Woman" (p4, 1970) was on Abraxas
        • "Oye Como Va" (p13, 1971) Also on Abraxas
        • Santana III (p1 uk6, 1971)
        • Caravanserai (p8 uk6, 1972)
      5. Carlos Santana is the Latino answer to Eric Clapton's elevation of blues to the virtuosic level
    • ZZ Top
      1. Formed in Texas
      2. Heavy reliance on blues; style is considered Texas blues
        • Guitarist Billy Gibbons,
        • Bassist Dusty Hill
        • Drummer Frank Beard
      3. First album didn't chart, but subsequent albums did well through the 1970s into the 1980s
        • First Album (1971) didn't chart
        • Tres Hombres fared better (p8 1973)
        • Fandango! (p10 uk60, 1975)
        • The Fandango! track "Tush" (p20, 1975) is most representative of their style
    • Steppenwolf
      1. Formed in Los Angeles in the late 1960s
        • Singer/guitarist John Kay
        • Organist Goldy McJohn
        • Drummer Jerry Edmunton
      2. First album, Steppenwolf (p6, 1968)
        • Contained the hit single, "Born to Be Wild" (p2, 1968)
      3. Steppenwolf the Second (p3, 1969)
        • The single "Magic Carpet Ride" (p3, 1968) was on that album
      4. Leader Kay spent time in New York and San Francisco before forming the band in Los Angeles
      5. Definite psychedelic elements are present in the songs
      6. Disbanded after a Valentine's Day concert in 1972
    • Three Dog Night
      1. Formed in Los Angeles
      2. Early records produced by Brian Wilson
      3. Three lead singers
      4. Several hit songs by up-and-coming songwriters of the time
        • Harry Nilsson's "One" (p5, 1969)
        • Laura Nyro's "Eli's Coming" (p10, 1969)
        • Randy Newman's "Mama Told Me (Not to Come)" (p1, 1970)
    • Grand Funk Railroad
      1. Formed in Flint Michigan in the late 1960s
        • Guitarist/vocalist Mark Farner and
        • Drummer/vocalist Don Brewer
        • Bassist Mel Schacher
      2. The band was successful almost immediately
        • On Time (p27 1969)
      3. Their next nine albums were in the Billboard Top 10
        • We're an American Band (p2, 1973)
        • The single of the same name went to number one in 1973
        • Shinin On (p5, 1974)
        • Contained a version of Little Eva's 1962 hit "The Loco-Motion" (p1 1974)
        • The single "Shinin On" (p11, 1974)
        • "Some Kind of Wonderful" (p3, 1975) was their last hit
    • Edgar Winter (and White Trash)
      1. Keyboardist/saxophonist/vocalist Edgar Winter:
        • Important influence in American blues rock
        • His band White Trash had a hit album, Roadwork (p23, 1971)
      2. Formed the Edgar Winter Group in 1972
      3. Edgar Winter Group's first album was They Only Come Out at Night (p3, 1972)
        • That album had the instrumental hit "Frankenstein" (p1 uk18, 1973)
        • Also on that album was "Free Ride" (p14, 1973)
      4. Shock Treatment (p13, 1974)
      5. Montrose left to form his own band
      6. Added guitarist Rick Derringer (who had played in the McCoys as well as White Trash)
    • The Doobie Brothers
      1. Based in San Francisco with blues-rock style similar to Edgar Winter and Grand Funk
        • Heavy rock guitars and drums
        • 1960s black pop influenced vocals
        • Knack for a good pop hook
        • Producing rock songs that fit nicely into evolving FM radio formats
      2. The original lineup of the band:
        • Bassist Tiran Porter
        • Drummers Dave Shogren and Michael Hossack
        • Guitarist Pat Simmons
        • Guitarist/vocalist Tom Johnston
      3. Several hit albums and singles
        • Toulouse Street (p21, 1972)
        • Contained the hit "Listen to the Music" (p11, 1972)
        • The Captain and Me (p7, 1973)
        • Contained "Long Train Runnin'" (p8, 1973)
        • Also on that album: "China Grove" (p15, 1973)
        • What Were Once Vices Are Now Habits (p4 uk19, 1974)
        • Placed on the UK chart
        • Included the single "Black Water" (p1 1974)
    • Aerosmith
      1. Comparable to the Rolling Stones
        • Lead singer Stephen Tyler similar in appearance and stage performance to Jagger
        • Guitarist Joe Perry's tough-guy demeanor paralleled that of Richards
      2. Gradually rose to consistent hit success
        • Aerosmith (1973), did not chart
        • The track "Dream On" only rose as high as number fifty-nine in the United States
        • Second album, Get Your Wings (p74, 1974) charted low despite well-crafted tracks
        • "Same Old Song and Dance"
        • Blues classic "Train Kept a Rollin'"
      3. More successful releases beginning in 1975 promoted FM radio airplay of earlier work
        • Toys in the Attic (p 11, 1975)
        • The single "Sweet Emotion" (p36, 1975)
        • Rocks (p3, 1976)
        • Re-release of "Walk This Way" (p10, 1976)
    • J. Geils Band
      1. Another American blues-rock band
        • Leader/guitarist J. Geils
        • Vocalist Peter Wolf
        • Harmonica player Magic Dick
      2. Early work wasn't successful
      3. Gained recognition and success with Bloodshot (p 10, 1973)
        • Contained the single "Give It to Me" (p30, 1973)
      4. Nightmares (and Other Tales from the Vinyl Jungle) (p26, 1974)
        • Contained the single "Must of Got Lost" (p 12, 1974)
  • Progressive rock: Big ideas and high ambition
    • The differences between blues-rock bands and progressive rock
      1. The hippie aesthetic was applied to blues-rock bands
        • Some bands blended in classical, folk, or country elements
        • Others focused on virtuosic soloing influenced by blues and jazz
        • Some engaged serious issues in their lyrics
      2. Progressive rock bands applied more techniques and concepts found in classical music
        • Applied psychedelia in a more intellectual way
        • Less (if any) emphasis on blues as a foundation of the songs
      3. British progressive rock bands embraced the concept album
        • Elaborate covers inspired by Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
        • Lyrics avoided romantic themes or sexual prowess
      4. Lyrics for progressive rock were more philosophical
        • Religion and spirituality
        • Politics and power
        • The forward march of technology
        • Existential angst
      5. Continued the hippie aesthetic attitude that music should provide a "trip"
    • The use of classical music with rock
      1. Primary element of 1970s British progressive rock
      2. Some groups attempted to raise rock to the level of classical music
    • Moody Blues
      1. First success was the single "Go Now" (p10 uk1, 1965)
      2. First classical music concept album: Days of Future Past (p3 uk27, 1967)
        • Their label, Decca, asked them to record a rock version of Dvorak's "New World Symphony"
        • Purpose: Stereo demonstration record to sell Decca Stereo units
        • Result: long suite connected by professionally arranged orchestral interludes
      3. Several hit records followed through the 1970s
        • A Question of Balance (p3 uk1, 1970)
        • Every Good Boy Deserves Favor (p2 uk1, 1971)
        • Seventh Sojourn (p1 uk5, 1972)
    • Procol Harum
      1. Also blended classical music with rock
        • "A Whiter Shade of Pale" (p5 uk1, 1967)
        • Vocal part similar to Percy Sledge's "When a Man Loves a Woman"
        • Harmonic progression drawn from a cantata by J. S. Bach
      2. Several successful albums
        • Salty Dog (p32 uk27, 1969)
        • Procol Harum in Concert (p5 uk48, 1972)
        • Grand Hotel (p21, 1973)
    • The Who and their big projects
      1. They experimented with adding classical music ideas to their music in the 1960s
      2. Two projects laid groundwork for Tommy (p4 uk2, 1969)
        • "A Quick One While He's Away" from A Quick One (1966)
        • "Rael" from The Who Sell Out (uk13, 1968)
        • Encouraged by their manager, Kit Lambert—his father was a classical composer
      3. Tommy
        • Deaf, dumb, and blind boy Tommy gains spiritual enlightenment through playing pinball
        • When Tommy is cured he's cast as a guru, with great wisdom
        • Tells followers they must give up pot and drinking, mute their senses and play pinball
        • Followers reject him and hard work he requires
        • The message is that spiritual enlightenment is difficult to attain
      4. Two more large-scale projects were attempted
        • Lifehouse: a concert album that would somehow combine the audience into an album
        • It didn't work out, and the tracks were released as Who 's Next (p4 uk1, 1971)
        • Quadrophenia (p2 uk2, 1973)
        • Story about a young mod seeking meaning in his life
      5. The Who continued to have commercial success through the 1970s
    • King Crimson
      1. In the Court of the Crimson King (p28 uk5, 1969) combined many musical concepts
        • The first influential album on British progressive rock
        • Harder, dissonant aspects of twentieth-century music
        • Softer more consonant elements of nineteenth-century classical music
        • Modern jazz influence
        • Led by guitarist Robert Fripp
        • Greg Lake on bass and vocals
        • Michael Giles on drums
        • Ian McDonald on keyboards and woodwinds
      2. Opening track is "21-Century Schizoid Man"
        • Harshly belted vocals
        • Virtuosic middle section filled with odd rhythmic syncopations and angular melodic riffs
      3. Several personnel changes before the most successful lineup:
        • Drummer Bill Bruford replaced Michael Giles
        • Bassist/vocalist John Wetton replaced Greg Lake
        • Violinist David Cross
        • Lark's Tongue in Aspic (p61 uk20, 1973)
        • Red (p66 uk45, 1974)
    • Emerson, Lake and Palmer
      1. Keith Emerson was the keyboardist for the Nice
        • Known for elaborate stage presence
        • Borrowed Jimi Hendrix's idea of breaking up (or seeming to) his instruments
        • The Nice toured with the Jimi Hendrix Experience in the 1960s
      2. The Nice had two hit albums in the UK in 1969 and 1970
        • The Nice (uk3, 1969)
        • Five Bridges Suite (uk2, 1970)
      3. The Nice and King Crimson toured together in the United States during 1969
      4. Emerson and Greg Lake decided to form their own band
      5. Added drummer Carl Palmer from Arthur Brown's band and became Emerson, Lake & Palmer (ELP)
      6. They created profoundly creative albums, incorporating in reworked classical pieces
        • Tarkus (p9 uk1, 1971)
        • All original
        • Long tracks with extensive virtuosic soloing from Emerson
        • Pictures at an Exhibition (p 10 uk3, 1971)
        • Rock version of a large multimovement composition
        • Original piece was by nineteenth-century composer Modest Mussorgsky
      7. They continued to be counted as one of the most successful bands of the 1970s
        • Trilogy (p5 uk2, 1972)
        • Brain Salad Surgery (p11 uk2, 1973)
    • Jethro Tull
      1. Started as a blues band with many personnel changes
      2. Stand Up (p20 uk1, 1969) was a straightforward blues/folk-oriented album
      3. The lineup that played on most of the conceptual albums was
        • Leader Ian Anderson (vocals, harmonica, flute, and guitar)—standing on one leg!
        • Martin Barre (guitar)
        • John Evans (keyboards)
        • Barrie Barlow (drums)
        • Jeffrey Hammond-Hammond (Bass)
      4. Concept albums focused on religion and spirituality, bourgeoisie values, and life after death
      5. Aqualung (p7 uk4, 1971)
        • Condemns society's treatment of the poor
        • A bitter indictment of the Church of England
      6. Thick as a Brick (p1 1972)
        • A setting of a poem by a fictitious child: "Little Milton"
        • An attack on bourgeois values (including religion)
      7. A Passion Play (p1 uk13, 1973)
        • Takes on the topic of life after death and reincarnation
      8. Thick as a Brick and A Passion Play are each one continuous track from start to finish
        • There had to be a break in the middle to turn the record over
        • All other albums were divided up into individual tracks
    • Yes
      1. Led by vocalist Jon Anderson
        • Concerned with spirituality inspired by Eastern religious ideas
      2. The third album, Fragile (p4 uk7, 1971), was the first by the band's definitive lineup
        • Vocalist Anderson
        • Guitarist Steve Howe
        • Bassist Chris Squire
        • Drummer Bill Bruford
        • Flamboyant multi-keyboardist Rick Wakeman
      3. Most accomplished musicians of the time
      4. Howe, Squire, Wakeman, and Bruford consistently won awards for their playing
      5. Obvious spiritual themes in Close to the Edge (p3 uk4, 1972)
        • Based in part on Hermann Hesse's novel Siddhartha
        • The eighteen-minute title track is inspired by the quest for spiritual wisdom
        • Yes exemplifies the hopeful innocence of psychedelia
      6. Tales from Topographic Oceans (p6 uk1, 1973) is inspired by Eastern scripture
        • Paramahansa Yogananda's Autobiography of a Yogi (popular with hippies at the time)
        • Consists of four tracks on a double album
        • One track per side
      7. Wakeman left to pursue a solo career in 1973—replaced by Swiss keyboardist Patrick Moraz
      8. Relayer (p5 uk4, 1974) displayed a blend of virtuosity with heady philosophy
        • "The Gates of Delirium" filled side one of the three-track album
        • Lyrics are inspired by Tolstoy's War and Peace
      9. Yes was one of the most commercially successful bands of the 1970s
    • A look at Yes's use of classical concepts in a rock song: "Roundabout" from the Fragile album
      1. A complex formal structure is made out of shorter familiar sections
      2. Compound AABA form that we saw in Led Zeppelin's "Whole Lotta Love"
        • The A sections are made up of verse-bridge combinations
        • (Rather than verse-chorus as in the Led Zeppelin)
        • Begins with a rhythmically free guitar introduction (musicians call this "rubato")
        • The track launches into the first A section made up of two verses and a bridge
        • Next follows the second A section made up of a single verse and a bridge
        • The central B section is made up of a large, fifty-two-bar middle section
        • Followed by a return to material drawn from the introduction and the bridge during the quiet section
        • The B section ends with alternating organ and guitar solos
        • (All played over material drawn from the bridge)
        • Next is a return to a verse-chorus pair for the last A section
        • Concludes with a coda, ending with a guitar motive from the end of the introduction
      3. Elements are drawn from classical music concepts
        • Melody from opening guitar introduction returns during the transition to the second A and B sections
        • Reusing melodic material in new ways is a central feature of much classical music
        • There are a number of interesting rhythmic features
        • Bridge sections cannot be counted according to a simple four-beat pattern
        • Counting from 1:45, the count is 1234-1234-1234-12 and then 1234-1234-1234-12
        • This is called "changing meter"—common in twentieth-century classical music and some jazz
      4. Formal patterns are drawn from simpler pop formulae
      5. Melodic development and rhythmic (and metric) variation are drawn from classical music
      6. This exemplifies how progressive rock bands relied on classical and pop traditions
      7. The overall form of "Roundabout" can also be broken up into two large sections
        • Delineated by the acoustic guitar introduction and its return in the middle and end
        • Multiple layers of formal structure are also common in classical music
    • Genesis
      1. Combined elements of theater with progressive rock arrangements
        • Peter Gabriel: Vocals and theatrics
        • Phil Collins: Drums
        • Michael Rutherford: Bass
        • Tony Banks: Keyboards
      2. Band focused on lengthy, carefully worked out arrangements
      3. Gabriel spun bizarre stories that he acted out onstage
        • Costumes and props were used
        • Some costumes were so elaborate that Gabriel had difficulty singing into the mic
      4. The albums were concept albums based on profound sociological scenarios
      5. Nursery Cryme (1971) contains a track called "The Musical Box"
        • Gabriel portrays a reincarnated spirit that has aged seventy years
        • Also factored in is seventy years of pent-up sexual frustration
      6. The feature track on Foxtrot (uk1, 1972) is the twenty-minute "Supper's Ready"
        • Gabriel plays the role of the returning Messiah
        • In live performance, Gabriel is lifted up off the stage with wires
      7. Continued the hippie aesthetic attitude that music should provide a "trip"
        • The album The Lamb lies Down on Broadway (p41 uk10, 1974) features a main character named Rael
        • Rael is wandering the land caught between death and rebirth
    • Pink Floyd
      1. The band continued the psychedelic era approach in the sounds of their albums
      2. Many of their lyrics dealt with madness, after leader Syd Barrett's mental illness caused him to leave
        • Roger Waters on bass and vocals
        • Rick Wright on keyboards
        • Nick Mason on drums
        • Guitarist David Gilmour replacing Barrett
      3. Lyricist Waters often crafted lyrics around his father's death in WWII
      4. The band continued into the 1970s with a string of successful albums
        • Umma Gumma (uk5, 1969)
        • Atom Heart Mother (uk1, 1970)
        • Meddle (uk3, 1971)
      5. These albums relied more on electronic effects than virtuosic playing
      6. Stage shows were very elaborate
        • Stunning light shows
        • Additional theatrical elements like a crashing airplane or a giant inflatable flying pig
      7. The album they are most identified with is The Dark Side of the Moon (p1 uk2, 1973)
        • Songs from that album have been a staple of FM radio since the 1970s
      8. Wish You Were Here (p1 uk1, 1975) directly deals with Barrett's mental illness
        • Clearest reference to that is the track "Shine On You Crazy Diamond"
      9. The album The Wall (p1 uk3, 1979) was another of their most successful projects
        • References to Waters's father's death can be found in the album
        • Stage show was one of the most complex ever to accompany a rock band
        • Themes of alienation and despair are part of the album's theme
    • Progressive rock overview:
      1. Impressive lighting and prop effects during performances
      2. Rock musicians as virtuoso performers is a
        • Characteristic that links progressive rock to Hendrix and Clapton
        • Also links progressive rock to 1970s jazz rock
      3. Progressive rock extends the psychedelic era concepts of the 1960s
        • Concept albums
        • Rock operas
        • Notion of addressing important and serious-minded issues
        • Roots that extend as far back as the playlets of Leiber and Stoller
        • Progressive rock remains most faithful to the hippie aesthetic
  • Jazz-rock fusion
    • Jazz and the studio musician
      1. Clapton and Hendrix: extended improvisations were a central component of their live shows
      2. 1970s progressive rock musicians used classical music as a model for technical virtuosity
      3. Jazz also provided a model for many other musicians
      4. Musical prowess of jazz players has commanded respect for decades
      5. Jazz musicians had set high standards for musical and aesthetic excellence for decades
        • Charlie Parker
        • Dizzy Gillespie
        • John Coltrane
        • Art Tatum
      6. Emphasis is on the solo in jazz
        • Highest degree of skill is necessary
        • Jazz musicians applied that skill to night gigs in live music performances
        • They often worked during the day as studio musicians
        • Their skill was applied to the concept of being able to play any style of music
      7. Some of the greatest studio musicians were jazz musicians
        • The Funk Brothers played on all the Motown recordings
        • Los Angeles studio guitarist Barney Kessel
        • Kessel played on everything from Phil Spector records to those by the Monkees
      8. There were jazz-schooled musicians who could read music perfectly
        • Drummer Steve Gadd
        • Bassist Tony Levin
        • Guitarist Lee Ritenour
        • Guitarist Larry Carlton
    • Miles Davis and jazz-rock fusion
      1. Trumpeter Miles Davis had been at the forefront of jazz since the 1940s
      2. He noticed that Hendrix and Clapton used extended solos in their shows
        • Their solos were not so different from jazz solos
        • Rock audiences actually sat and listened to them
        • Rock audiences were huge—stadiums and festivals
      3. Davis wanted to put music together that would work for large rock audiences
      4. He formed a band that could do the job and recorded Bitches Brew (p35, 1970)
        • Guitarist John McLaughlin
        • Keyboardist Joseph Zawinul
        • Keyboardist Chick Corea
        • Keyboardist Herbie Hancock
        • Saxophonist Wayne Shorter
      5. This was the first jazz-rock fusion album
    • The Bitches Brew musicians went on to highly successful solo careers
      1. John McLaughlin formed Mahavishnu Orchestra and combined several elements together
        • Jazz
        • Rock
        • Eastern mysticism
        • Inner Mounting Flame (1972)
        • Birds of Fire (p15 uk20, 1973)
      2. Herbie Hancock had a hit with Headhunters (p13, 1974)
      3. Chick Corea formed Return to Forever and charted several times
        • Romantic Warrior (p35, 1976) clearest link to progressive rock
      4. Shorter and Zawinul formed Weather Report
        • Heavy Weather (p30 uk4, 1977)
      5. Jazz-rock fusion ushered in a renewed appreciation for instrumental music
  • Jazz-influenced rock
    • Frank Zappa
      1. Zappa spend his entire career on the fringes of popular music
      2. His style encompasses several diverse aspects
        • Virtuosity
        • Satire and humor
        • Complexity
        • Compositional sophistication
        • Occasional bad taste
      3. Zappa began with his band the Mothers of Invention in 1966
        • Freak Out! (1966) is the first example of his style
        • We're Only in It for the Money (p30 uk32, 1968) was a send-up of Sgt. Pepper
      4. Zappa frequently changed band members
      5. Had eight more Top 40 albums
      6. Biggest success in UK was Hot Rats (uk9)
      7. Apostrophe (p 1 0, 1974) made the strongest showing in the United States
      8. "I'm the Slime" from Overnight Sensation (p32, 1973) is an example of Zappa's blended style
        • Jazz-fusion playing
        • Cartoonish vocals
        • Satirical lyrics
        • Bitter critique of television
      9. Zappa preferred that his music not be interpreted
        • Didn't care if it was commercial, artistic, or relevant
      10. Zappa composed several pieces that are best described as twentieth-century classical music
    • The return of Traffic
      1. Original members reunited in 1970 and released John Barleycorn Must Die (p 11 uk5, 1970)
      2. Personnel changed in 1971
        • Drummer Jim Capaldi left
        • Drummer Jim Gordon joined
        • Bassist Rick Grech joined
        • Percussionist Reebop Kwaku-Baah
      3. The Low Spark of the High-Heeled Boys (p7, 1971)
        • Title cut exemplifies saxophonist Chris Wood's Coltrane-influenced style
      4. Traffic released more successful albums in the 1970s, including
        • Shoot Out at the Fantasy Factory (p6, 1973)
        • When the Eagle Flies (p9 uk31, 1974)
      5. Winwood went on to pursue a successful solo career in 1975
    • Steely Dan
      1. Debut album in 1972 Can't Buy a Thrill (p 17, 1972) contained two hits
        • "Do It Again" (p6, 1972)
        • "Reelin' in the Years" (p 11, 1972)
      2. Personnel began shifting after the first album
        • Led by keyboardist/vocalist Donald Fagen
        • Co-leader bassist/guitarist Walter Becker
        • Vocalist David Palmer (left—Fagen took over lead vocals)
        • Guitarist Jeff "Skunk" Baxter (left to join the Doobie Brothers)
      3. Fagen and Becker began hiring studio musicians to play on the records
        • The best musicians money could buy in New York and Los Angeles
        • Arrangements were all written out
        • Solos were improvised in the studio
      4. Best example of this approach is the album Aja (p3 uk5, 1977)
      5. Aja included three hit singles
        • "Peg" (p11, 1977)
        • "Deacon Blues" (p19, 1978)
        • "Josie" (p26, 1978)
        • Guitarist Lee Ritenour's solo was improvised. Everything else was written out
      6. All seven of Steely Dan's albums placed in the Top 40
      7. They had ten Top 40 singles
    • Blood, Sweat, and Tears
      1. Al Kooper formed Blood, Sweat, and Tears
        • After working with Dylan
        • Before producing Lynyrd Skynyrd
        • They released Child Is Father to the Man (uk40, 1968)
        • Kooper left after the first album to record Super Session with Mike Bloomfield and Steven Stills
        • Singer David Clayton-Thomas joined when Kooper left
      2. They were successful throughout the rest of the 1960s
      3. The next album, Blood, Sweat, & Tears (p1 uk15, 1969) contained three hit singles
        • "You've Made Me So Very Happy" (p2 uk35, 1969)
        • "Spinning Wheel" (p2, 1969)
        • "And When I Die" (p2, 1969)
        • The album won a Grammy Award
      4. Blood, Sweat & Tears 3 (p1 uk14, 1970)
        • Goffin and King's "Hi-De-Ho" (p14, 1970)
        • "Lucretia MacEvil" (p29, 1970) was written by Clayton-Thomas
      5. The band featured a small horn section made up of permanent members
        • Made the horns more central to the arrangements
        • Solo and ensemble playing are influenced by big-band jazz tradition
      6. An example of their style is the arrangement of the Rolling Stones' "Sympathy for the Devil"
        • Their title: "Sympathy for the Devil/Symphony for the Devil"
        • Similar to Vanilla Fudge's symphonic-psychedelic approach cover versions
        • It is an almost eight-minute epic version of the song
        • Long instrumental passages
        • Both jazz and avant-garde classical musical practices are used
    • Chicago
      1. Also featured a horn section in the band
      2. Chicago Transit Authority (p17 uk9, 1969)
        • "Does Anybody Really Know What Time It Is?" (p7, 1970), vocals by keyboardist Robert Lamm
        • Band mixed jazz arrangements with Beatles-influenced pop vocals and song elements
        • Song begins with a rhythmic ensemble instrumental introduction
        • Brief trumpet solo from Lee Loughnane
        • The horns accompany as Lamm sings verses and chorus
        • Beatles-styled backup vocals
        • Jazzy trombone lick at the end by James Pankow
      3. Bassist Peter Cetera has a voice that sounds similar to Paul McCartney's
        • "If You Leave Me Now," (p1 uk1 1976), Cetera sings the lead vocal
      4. Thirteen Top 40 albums during the 1970s (five of them were Top 40 in the UK)
      5. Twenty-two Top 40 singles (three in the UK)
    • Jazz-rock fusion controversy
      1. Jazz-rock fusion and progressive rock both ended up being invalidated by jazz and rock purists
        • Many jazz traditionalists considered jazz-rock a sellout to the pop-music industry
        • Rock purists thought jazz-rock was too concerned with instrumental virtuosity
        • Rock purists also rejected progressive rock because it was too complex and self-indulgent
      2. Both styles were a continuation of the hippie aesthetic:
        • Freely blend styles and forms, and introduce new sounds
        • Embrace the result of new blends as an advancement process
      3. Later in the decade this attitude died out
      4. The Punk rebellion joined jazz and rock purists in their attack on these styles
  • Glam rock and rock theater: Shocking characters
    • Setting the stage for rock musicians who act out a character onstage
      1. Early influences come from Genesis and Pink Floyd
        • Peter Gabriel used costumes and props to act out characters from songs
        • Pink Floyd put on elaborate visual stage shows
      2. During the 1970s rock shows were held in stadiums and arenas
      3. Audiences came to expect more spectacle with the music
      4. Imaginary aspects had already been presented in the 1960s:
        • Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was an album by an imaginary band
        • The Doors' Jim Morrison assumed the role of the Lizard King on stage and in albums
    • Alice Cooper
      1. A band of tough-looking hard-drinking men with a front man named Alice
        • Vocalist Vincent Furnier became Alice onstage
        • Guitarist Glen Buxton
        • Guitarist Michael Bruce
        • Drummer Neal Smith
        • Bassist Dennis Dunaway
      2. Explored theatrical aspects of horror in their albums and shows
      3. Cooper finished his shows with often gruesome antics
        • He was hanged
        • Executed in an electric chair
        • Beheaded on a guillotine
      4. Jim Morrison befriended and influenced Cooper in the 1960s
      5. First commercial success came with Love It to Death (p35, 1971)
        • "I'm Eighteen" (p21, 1971) on that album explored teenage depression and anger
        • Produced by Bob Ezrin (he stayed on through the 1970s as their producer)
      6. Cooper continued to have hit albums and successful tours through the 1970s
      7. Killer (p21 uk27, 1971) featured the semi-autobiographical "Be My Lover" (p47, 1972)
      8. School's Out (p2 uk4, 1972), which contained the single "School's Out" (p7 ukl, 1972)
      9. Billion Dollar Babies (p1 uk1, 1973)
      10. Cooper went solo in 1975, releasing Welcome to My Nightmare (p5 uk19, 1975)
        • Cooper abandoned horror by this time
        • Stage persona was more cartoonish than gruesome
    • Kiss
      1. All four members of the band assumed individual character roles with makeup and costumes
        • Bassist Gene Simmons
        • Drummer Peter Criss
        • Guitarist Paul Stanley
        • Guitarist Ace Freley
      2. Their characters were based on cartoon-like comic book type figures
        • They appeared on stage only in costume
        • For years they kept their identities a secret—which added to the appeal and mystique
      3. Stage shows incorporated elaborate effects and spectacle
        • Light shows
        • Flames (as in circus fire-eater techniques)
        • Explosions
      4. Their music was basically blues rock
      5. Albums were not as successful as their live stage shows
        • Kiss (p87, 1974)
        • Hotter Than Hell (pl00, 1974)
        • Dressed to Kill (p32, 1975)
        • Live version of "Rock and Roll All Nite" ( p12 1975) was a turning point
      6. The live album Alive (p9 uk49, 1976) bolstered their career
        • Contained songs from earlier albums
        • Earlier albums began to sell
      7. They became very successful by the end of the decade
        • They eventually starred in their own feature film
        • Marketed Kiss action figures
    • David Bowie
      1. David Bowie was the only British glam star able to make a significant impact in the United States
      2. His first important success in the UK: the single "Space Oddity" (uk5, 1969)
        • It eventually placed on U.S. charts (p15, 1973)
        • Inspired by the Stanley Kubrick's film 2001: A Space Odyssey
      3. In the early 1970s Bowie formed the Spiders from Mars
        • Featured Mick Ronson on guitar
        • He also created the character of Ziggy Stardust for an album:
        • The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars (p75 uk5, 1972)
        • Contained the UK hit "Suffragette City" (uk10, 1972)
      4. Initial success remained in UK through 1973 with several successful albums
        • Aladdin Sane (p17 uk1, 1973)
        • Pin-Ups (p23 uk 1, 1973)
        • Diamond Dogs (uk 1, 1974)
      5. Bowie eventually rose to stardom in the United States
        • The album David Live (p8 uk2, 1974)
        • Selection of songs from the earlier Bowie albums
        • American success continued with Young Americans (p9 uk2, 1975)
        • That album contained the single "Fame" (p1 uk17, 1975)
        • Station to Station (p3 uk5, 1976) solidified Bowie's stardom in America
      6. Similarities and the differences between David Bowie and Alice Cooper
        • Both adopted a stage persona that was based in fantasy
        • Both pushed the boundaries of sexual and gender identities
        • Bowie changed characters with every album
        • Cooper stayed with his Alice character throughout his career
  • Singer-songwriters
    • Roots are in folk music of the 1960s (particularly Dylan and late Beatles songs)
      1. Lyrics were meant to appear as though they were from personal experience
      2. These artists were the antithesis of glam and theater rock artists
        • Glam and theater rock artists were presenting an artificial persona
        • Singer-songwriters were perceived as genuine observers of the human condition
      3. Focus was on the singer-songwriter rather than elaborate instrumentation or performance
        • Often these artists concertized by themselves or with minimal backup
        • Not unusual to see a singer-songwriter alone at a piano or playing acoustic guitar
      4. Both Dylan and John Lennon performed during the 1970s as singer-songwriters
      5. The focus was the singer and the song
    • James Taylor
      1. One of the first artists signed to the Beatles' new Apple label.
        • James Taylor (1968) did not chart
        • It contained "Carolina on My Mind" which became popular later
      2. Sweet Baby James (p3 uk7, 1970) was recorded and released under a new label
        • Established Taylor on both sides of the Atlantic
        • Contained the hit "Fire and Rain" (p3, 1970)
      3. Taylor continued his success through the first half of the 1970s
        • Mud Slide Slim (p2 uk4, 1971)
        • One Man Dog (p4 uk27, 1972)
      4. Taylor had a hit single with Carole King's "You've Got a Friend" (p1 uk4, 1971)
    • Carole King
      1. Moved from songwriter into the artist role in the 1970s
      2. Became one of the most important female artists of the 1970s
      3. Several hit albums and singles from those albums
        • Tapestry (p1 uk4, 1970)
        • Contained "It's Too Late" (p1 uk6, 1971)
        • Her own version of "You've Got a Friend"
        • Also a reinterpretation of her "Will You Love Me Tomorrow"
        • Music (p1 uk 18, 1972)
        • Rhymes and Reason (p2 uk40, 1972)
    • Paul SimonContinued on as a solo singer-songwriter after a successful five years with partner Art Garfunkel
      1. Continued on as a solo singer-songwriter after a successful five years with partner Art Garfunkel
      2. Simon incorporated non-rock styles into his well-crafted songs
      3. Singles were hits that appeared on hit albums
        • Paul Simon (p4 uk 1, 1972) contained "Mother and Child Reunion" (p4 uk5, 1972)
        • Jamaican musicians provided backup tracks before reggae was popular
      4. Simon increasingly added jazz elements into his music during the 1970s
        • There Goes Rhymin ' Simon (p2 uk4, 1973) featured the hit "Kodachrome" (p2, 1973)
        • Still Crazy after All These Years (p1 uk6, 1975)
        • "50 Ways to Leave Your Lover" (p1 uk23, 1975)
      5. "Still Crazy After All These Years" exemplifies the mix of jazz into singer-songwriter style
        • Sophisticated backup tracks are played by studio musicians
        • The middle section features a jazz-tinged saxophone solo
    • Other important American singer-songwriters:
      1. Carly Simon
        • "That's the Way I Always Heard It Should Be" (p 10, 1971)
        • "Anticipation" (p13, 1971)
        • Her album No Secrets (p1 uk3; 1973) stands as the peak of her popular appeal
        • Contains the single "You're So Vain" (p1 uk3, 1972)
        • Backup vocals by Mick Jagger (the rumored "you" in the song)
      2. Harry Chapin, had hits with philosophical songs about life's twists and turns
        • "Taxi" (p24, 1972)
        • "Cat's in the Cradle" (p 1, 1974)
      3. Don McLean
        • His song "American Pie" (p1 uk2, 1972) uses symbolism to describe rock music over time
        • "Vincent" (p12 uk1, 1972) offers a portrait of the painter Vincent Van Gogh
      4. Jim Croce was killed in a plane crash in 1973 with a hit song on the charts at the time
        • "Bad, Bad Leroy Brown" (p1, 1973) was that song
        • "Time in a Bottle" (p 1, 1974) a reflection on the unwelcome approach of death
        • Recorded months before the crash
    • British singer-songwriters
      1. Van Morrison continued his 1960s success
        • Blend of jazz and rhythm and blues: Moondance (p29, 1970)
        • Tupelo Honey (p21, 1971)
      2. Cat Stevens
        • First big hit single "Peace Train" (p7, 1971)
        • A string of successful albums
        • Teaser and the Firecat (p2 uk3, 1971)
        • Catch Bull at Four (p 1 uk2, 1972)
        • Buddha and the Chocolate Box (p2 uk3, 1974)
      3. Elton John.
        • First big hit single: "Your Song" (p8 uk7, 1971)
        • Series of hugely successful albums:
        • Honky Chateau (p1 uk2, 1972)
        • Don't Shoot Me I'm Only the Piano Player (p1 uk1, 1973),
        • Goodbye Yellow Brick Road (p1 ukl, 1973), and
        • Caribou (p1 ukl, 1974)
      4. Elton John's songs are all written with lyricist Bernie Taupin
      5. The John-Taupin partnership reflects the Tin Pan Alley/Brill Building songwriting teams
      6. John formed a band in the early 1970s
        • Drummer Nigel Olsson
        • Bassist Dee Murray
        • Guitarist Davey Johnstone
      7. The singer-songwriter fronting a rock band became the model for later singer-songwriters
        • Billy Joel
        • Bob Seger
        • Bruce Springsteen
    • Canadian singer-songwriters: Joni Mitchell
      1. Joni Mitchell came through the folk music scene in the 1960s
        • Judy Collins recorded her song "Both Sides Now" (p8 uk14, 1968)
      2. One of the most eclectic songwriters in the 1970s
      3. Used very talented and often well-known musicians on her albums
      4. Began incorporating jazz into her arrangements
      5. Her biggest commercial success was Court and Spark (p2 uk14, 1974)
        • Contained the single "Help Me" (p7) and
        • Featured Tom Scott's LA Express on the album
      6. She explored new stylistic territory with The Hissing of Summer Lawns (p4 uk14, 1975)
      7. She explored esoteric jazz with Mingus (p 1 7 uk24, 1979)
    • Neil Young
      1. Young was a member of the Buffalo Springfield during the 1960s
      2. Also appeared occasionally with Crosby, Stills and Nash on albums and in concert
      3. Had a very successful solo career with several albums placing high on the charts
        • Beginning with After the Gold Rush (p8 uk 7, 1970)
        • Contained "Southern Man"
        • Lynyrd Skynyrd answered it in the lyrics to "Sweet Home Alabama"
      4. Greatest commercial and critical success with Harvest (p1 uk1, 1972)
        • Contained the hit "Heart of Gold" (p1 uk1, 1972)
      5. Young's singing style differed from most other singer-songwriters at that time
        • Young's voice is frequently thin, somewhat out of tune, and seemingly unsure
        • These traits can be beneficial—suggesting an "everyman" quality
    • Gordon Lightfoot
      1. Known for more traditional approach to songwriting and singing style
      2. More closely aligned with folk music:
        • Thoughtful lyrics
        • Clear baritone voice
      3. Lightfoot had several hits in the 1970s
        • "If You Could Read My Mind" (p5 uk30, 1971)
        • "Sundown" (p1 uk33, 1974)
        • "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" (p2 uk40, 1976)
  • Country rock
    • Why country rock
      1. Simple honesty
      2. Country music has always presented itself as "down-home" music
        • Reflecting on values and situations shared by people concerned about basic daily life issues
        • Lyrics are built around direct concepts
        • Music is easy to remember and learn
      3. In the late 1960s country rock was a reaction against the excesses of psychedelia
    • The Byrds (and Dylan) go country
      1. The first rock band to record in Nashville was the Byrds
        • By 1968 most original members had left
        • Roger McGuinn brought in Gram Parsons
        • Parsons knew country music
        • The Nashville project was Sweetheart of the Rodeo (1968)
      2. Bob Dylan recorded Nashville Skyline (p3 uk1, 1969) in Nashville
        • Contains a duet version of "Girl form the North Country"
        • Sung with Johnny Cash
    • Crosby Stills and Nash (with or without Young)
      1. Blended the folk rock of the Byrds with jazz, country, and blues
      2. David Crosby from the Byrds (before they went to Nashville)
      3. Steven Stills had been in the Buffalo Springfield
      4. Graham Nash left the Hollies
      5. They got together and recorded Crosby Stills and Nash (p6 uk25, 1969)
      6. Neil Young joined them on the next album Deja Vu (pl uk5, 1970)
      7. The following album was the live album, Four Way Street (p1 uk5, 1971)
        • "Suite: Judy Blue Eyes" (p21, 1969) was on that album
        • Good example of the band's blend of a range of musical concepts
        • Acoustic and electric instruments
        • Close vocal harmony
        • Catchy pop songwriting
    • The Band
      1. They worked with Dylan in Woodstock, New York, during the late 1960s
      2. They recorded Music from Big Pink (p30, 1968)
      3. Canadian musicians who had a deep love for the music of the American south
      4. They released a series of successful albums, including
        • The Band (p9 uk25, 1970)
        • Cahoots (p21 uk41, 1971)
        • Rock of Ages (p6, 1972)
      5. The band's first hit single was "Up on Cripple Creek" (p25, 1970)
        • "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down" was on the B-side
        • The song tells the story of the fall of the south during the Civil War
        • Uses country and folk styles
    • Creedence Clearwater Revival
      1. 1960s band from the San Francisco Bay area
        • John and Tom Foggerty on guitars
        • Stu Cook on bass
        • Doug Clifford on drums
        • John Foggerty's singing sounded black
        • John Foggerty wrote most of the band's music
      2. Long string of hit singles and albums
        • Beginning with the single "Suzie Q" (p11, 1968)
        • "Proud Mary" (p2 uk8, 1969)
        • "Bad Moon Rising" (p2 uk1, 1969)
        • The album Green River (p1 uk20, 1969)
      3. Cosmo's Factory (p1 uk1, 1970)
      4. Willy and the Poor Boys (p3 ukl0, 1970)
        • "Down on the Comer"
        • "Poor Boy Shuffle"
        • "Fortunate Son"
        • Was a concept album similar to Sgt. Pepper
        • The band became the title characters
    • The Eagles
      1. California became the home of country rock by the early 1970s
      2. The Eagles were the leading band in the style
      3. The Eagles brought several 1960s elements together
        • The Eagles were a superb singing group
        • Primary focus was on the song
        • They wrote their own music
        • Played on their own albums
        • Kept close control of production
      4. Formed by members of Linda Ronstadt's band
        • Guitarist Glenn Frey
        • Drummer Don Henley
        • Randy Meisner joined Ronstadt show
        • Bernie Leadon joined the Ronstadt show
        • The band left Ronstadt to form the Eagles
        • Guitarist Don Felder joined the band after the second album
      5. Their first album, Eagles (p22, 1972), was produced in London by Glyn Johns
      6. They consistently placed albums in the top of the charts
        • Desperado (p41, 1973), a country-rock concept album about the Old West
        • On the Border (p1 uk28, 1974)
        • One of These Nights (p1 uk8, 1975)
      7. The band placed eight singles in the American Top 40 by 1975 including
        • "Take It Easy" (p12, 1972)
        • "Best of My Love" (p1, 1974)
        • "One of These Nights" (p1, 1975)
      8. Guitarist Joe Walsh replaced Leadon in 1975
      9. Band abandoned its country rock sound to become even bigger rock stars
    • The Eagles' "Take It Easy"
      1. Opening with big, brilliant folk-rock electric guitar chords
      2. Another electric guitar enters imitating the sound of the country steel guitar
      3. First verse begins with a mild western accent on the lead vocal
        • Beatles/Beach Boys-influenced backup vocals enter
        • The harmonies are set high in the male voice register
      4. In the second verse, a high harmony is added
        • Makes the verse a duet
        • Similar to the Everly Brothers or Lennon and McCartney
      5. More steel guitar references during the solo
      6. Banjo is added in the accompaniment
      7. In the third verse, a new vocal part is added
      8. In the coda the banjo becomes more prominent
      9. The band again showcases their harmony vocals
      10. The song is in simple verse form
        • Verse structure is more complicated than usual
        • The verse consists of three, eight-bar sections to total twenty-four bars
        • Only the first two eight-bar sections are used in the instrumental verse
  • Overview of the first half of the 1970s
    • New styles developed out of styles present in the psychedelic era music
      1. There was an overall emphasis on combining styles
        • Country rock
        • Progressive rock combined classical music with rock
        • Jazz rock combined those two styles
      2. The unifying factor is the hippie aesthetic
        • Dedication to craft
        • Musical ability
        • Artistic approach to the creative process
        • The result had to be enjoyable to listen to
    • Three things happened that brought on change in the middle of the 1970s:
      1. Multinational corporations got involved in the music business
      2. The punk movement began to form
      3. Disco put dancing back at the center of popular music

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