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Chapter 6
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  • The effect of the British Invasion on black pop
    • There is a large consensus that the British Invasion hindered early 1960s pop music by black artists
      1. Some artists and styles survived
        • Phil Spector, Leiber and Stoller, and others had hit records in 1964
        • Shangri-Las' "Leader of the Pack" went to number one for Leiber and Stoller's Red Bird label in 1964
        • The Righteous Brothers' song "You've Lost That Lovin' Feeling" went went to number one in 1965
        • That song was a Phil Spector production
        • The Drifters' with "Under the Boardwalk" reached number four in 1964
      2. Many artists did not remain on charts after the British Invasion
        • The Ronettes' "Walking in the Rain" only made it to number twenty-nine
        • The Brill Building approach to making records died out with the British Invasion
      3. There is a temptation to compare the British Invasion to the 1950s
        • British musicians played music inspired or derived from black music styles in the 1960s
        • White groups and artists covered a great number of black pop songs in the 1950s
    • New black pop music arrived during the 1960s from new artists and other parts of the country
      1. Detroit, Michigan
      2. Memphis, Tennessee
      3. Muscle Shoals, Alabama
      4. Atlanta, Georgia
    • Styles from these regions raise the question about whether one style could be "blacker" than others
      1. Motown records was an independent label founded in Detroit, Michigan
        • Had enormous commercial success that paralleled the Beatles' success timeline in the early 1960s
        • Built the sound of the records around styles that appealed to a white audience
        • That generated accusations that Motown had "sold out" for big profits
      2. Southern soul from the Memphis area remained truer to musical roots in black culture
  • Motown: Black music for white audiences
    • Founded by Berry Gordy Jr. in 1959
      1. Gordy had several jobs before starting a record label
        • Professional boxer
        • Worked for his father's plastering company
        • Owned a record store
        • Worked on the Ford assembly line
      2. Gordy was interested in jazz but knew it wasn't commercially successful
      3. A boxing friend, Jackie Wilson, was going into singing and needed songs
      4. Gordy collaborated with Billy Davis (a.k.a. Tyran Carlo) on songs for Wilson
        • "Reet Petite" (1957)
        • "Lonely Teardrops" (p7 r1, 1958)
        • "That's Why (1 Love You So)" (p13 r2, 1959)
      5. Gordy formed Motown Records in 1959 and patterned many songs after other successful records
        • First hit was in 1960, Barrett Strong's "Money (That's What 1 Want)" (p23 r2)
        • The Marvelettes' "Please Mr. Postman" (p1, r1, 1961) draws from Brill Building "girl group" style
        • By the Contours' "Do You Love Me" (p3 r1, 1962) resembles the Isley Brothers' style
      6. Gordy knew that the best commercial potential was in crossover records
        • From rhythm and blues to pop
        • He used the same approach as Chuck Berry: the original version would become the crossover
        • That eliminated the need (or opportunity) for other labels to cover the records
        • This concept brought huge financial rewards
        • Records generally charted higher on the rhythm and blues charts but pop was always close
    • Gordy studied the successful models and used them in his own company
      1. The Leiber and Stoller idea of songwriters producing their songs had worked
      2. That idea had been adopted by the Brill Building successfully so Gordy employed it in Motown
      3. The original Motown songwriter-producer team from 1960 to 1964 included
        • Gordy
        • William "Mickey" Stevenson
        • William "Smokey" Robinson
      4. This team is responsible for several early hits
        • The first Miracles hit "Shop Around" (p2 r1, 1960)
        • Written by Gordy and Robinson, produced by Gordy
      5. Robinson wrote and produced several hits for Motown singer Mary Wells from 1962 to 1964:
        • "The One Who Really Loves You" (p8 r2, 1962)
        • "You Beat Me to the Punch" (p9 r1, 1962)
        • "Two Lovers" (p7 r1, 1962)
        • "My Guy" (p1, 1964)
    • The Producers
      1. From 1964 to 1967 Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland created many hits for groups recording for the label:
        • Supremes
        • Four Tops
        • Martha and the Vandellas
      2. From 1967 to 1970 Norman Whitfield produced hits for the Temptations
      3. Other important late 1960s Motown producers included
        • Frank Wilson
        • The team of Valerie Ashford and Nick Simpson
    • Quality Control—Motown style
      1. Recordings were produced in two adjoining Detroit houses called "Hitsville, USA"
      2. Gifted and experienced studio musicians helped producers craft their arrangements
        • Similar to Phil Spector's "wrecking crew"
        • Musicians were talented jazz musicians, adept at improvising and spontaneous "arranging"
        • Holland-Dozier-Holland sessions frequently began with only sparse musical directions
      3. A core group of musicians were at the center of the production process
      4. They played on most of the recordings
        • Pianist Earl Van Dyke
        • Drummer Bennie Benjamin
        • Electric bassist James Jamerson
      5. They were the studio band, "the Funk Brothers," responsible for the mid-1960s "Motown sound"
      6. In 2003 a documentary was produced about the Funk Brothers
        • Standing in the Shadows of Motown
        • The film featured interviews with surviving members of the studio band
        • Attention was finally focused on the musicians who were so much a part of that style
      7. Gordy held a weekly meeting with the Motown staff to decide which records they thought would be hits
    • Artist development was incorporated into the label
      1. Purpose was to teach low-income-bred artists how to behave in all possible social situations
      2. Former Broadway choreographer Cholly Atkins was hired to teach dance and stage movements
        • Dance movements had to be refined and graceful
        • Motown artists had to project an image of class and sophistication
      3. Gordy hired a charm school teacher, Maxine Powell, to teach proper manners and etiquette
        • Artists learned how to speak and move with charm and grace
        • They were groomed to be able to appear at elegant performance venues
        • They were to be prepared to perform at the White House or Buckingham Palace
  • The Motown artists
    • The Temptations
      1. The Temptations formed in 1961 and were one of Motown's top acts from 1964 to 1972
      2. They were made up of members of two Detroit area groups: the Distants and the Primes
        • Otis Williams
        • Melvin Franklin
        • Al Bryant, who was replaced by David Ruffin in 1963
        • Eddie Kendricks
        • Paul Williams (no relation to Otis)
        • Dennis Edwards replaced Ruffin in 1968
      3. The group had a hit in early 1964: "The Way You Do the Thing You Do" (p11)
        • Written and produced by Smokey Robinson
        • Exemplifies Robinson's clever approach to lyrics
        • "You got a smile so bright, you could've been a candle," works with Robinson's cheerful music
        • Features Kendrick's high tenor vocal
      4. Robinson went on to write and produce more Temptations hits
        • "My Girl" (p1 r1, 1965) featuring Ruffin on lead vocals
        • "Get Ready" (p29 r1, 1965)
      5. Norman Whitfield produced several Temptations hits in the later part of the 1960s
        • "Ain't Too Proud to Beg" (p13 r1, 1 966)
        • "I Know I'm Losing You" (p8 r1, 1966)
        • "You're My Everything" (p6 r3, 1967)
        • "Cloud Nine" (p6 r2 1968) displays influence of Sly and the Family Stone
    • The Supremes
      1. Best example of the Motown sound from the mid to late 1960s
      2. The extension of the Brill Building's girl-group concept to highest level of commercial success
      3. Formed in Detroit in 1959 as a sister group to the Primes, they were called the Primettes
        • Diana Ross
        • Mary Wilson
        • Florence Ballard, replaced by Cindy Birdsong in 1967
      4. Unsuccessful releases until Holland-Dozier-Holland produced five consecutive number one hits
        • "Where Did Our Love Go" (p1, 1964)
        • "Baby Love" (1964)
        • "Come See about Me" (r3, 1964)
        • "Stop! In the Name of Love" (r2, 1965)
        • "Back in My Arms Again" (r 1, 1965)
        • "Reflections" (p2 r4, 1967)
      5. Holland-Dozier-Holland left Motown in 1967 but the Supremes had another hit in 1968
        • "Love Child" (p1 r2, 1968)
        • Diana Ross left in 1969 to pursue a solo career
        • Their last single featuring Ross was "Someday We'll Be Together" (p1 r1, 1969)
    • The Supremes and Holland-Dozier-Holland
      1. One of the most successful writing and production teams in popular music
      2. "Baby Love" is a good example of the H-D-H/Supremes approach during the mid 1960s
      3. The introduction uses an arrangement idea similar to their previous hit "Where Did Our Love Go?"
        • A sound like handclaps: actually wooden 2x4s slapping together
        • Introduction that features a series of pulsating piano chords with drums
        • Vibraphone (or "vibes"): similar to the xylophone but with a sustained sound with vibrato
      4. Simple verse form
        • Seven verses repeated mostly without much change in accompaniment
        • Accompaniment includes electric guitar and bass after the introduction
        • Other Supremes provide backup vocals
      5. Nice twists to the arrangement
        • Third verse: saxophone takes a solo for the last eight measures
        • Verse 5 introduces a change of key: up a 1/2 step
      6. Holland-Dozier-Holland were so successful because they repeated ideas that worked
        • In the first two Supremes songs the word "Baby" is frequently used
        • The first three singles use simple verse form
        • Contrasting verse-chorus form used in "Stop! In The Name of Love" and "Back in My Arms Again"
    • The Four tops
      1. Formed in 1954 and remained together for four decades
        • Levi Stubbs
        • Obie Benson
        • Lawrence Payton
        • Duke Fakir
      2. The male counterparts to the Supremes from 1964 to 1967
      3. A string of H-D-H hits that included
        • "Baby I Need Your Loving" (p, 1964)
        • "I Can't Help Myself (Sugar Pie, Honey Bunch)" (p1 r1, 1965)
        • "It's the Same Old Song" (p5 r2, I 965)
        • "Reach Out I'll Be There" (p1 r1, 1966)
        • "Standing in the Shadows of Love" (p6 r2, 1966)
      4. Holland-Dozier-Holland arrangement characteristics frequently included classical references
        • Orchestral strings
        • Classical harmonic progressions
    • Martha (Reeves) and the Vandellas formed in Detroit in 1962
      1. Recorded for Chess Records as members of the Del-Phis, they became the Vandellas in 1963
        • Rosalyn Ashford
        • Annette Beard (replaced by Betty Kelly Beard in 1964)
      2. Reeves and friends sang backup on Marvin Gaye's "Stubborn Kind of Fellow" (p46 r8, 1962)
      3. Holland-Dozier-Holland produced most of the Martha and the Vandellas hits
        • "Heat Wave" (p4 r1, 1963)
        • "Quicksand" (p8, 1963)
        • "Dancing in the Street" (p2, 1964) was produced by Mickey Stevenson
        • "Nowhere to Run" (p8 r5, 1965)
        • "Jimmy Mack" (p10 r1, 1967)
      4. Martha and the Vandellas vocal style was drawn from gospel music
        • Powerful full-throated vocal style from Reeves
        • Stark contrast to the Supremes' much more reserved pop style
        • Foreshadowed more soulful singers who would arrive in mid-decade
        • Acceptance of the Martha and the Vandellas sound opened the door for Aretha Franklin
    • Marvin Gaye
      1. One of three artist-producers on the Motown label
        • Smokey Robinson was one
        • Stevie Wonder was the other
      2. His first hit was in 1962: "Stubborn Kind of Fellow"
      3. Sixteen more Top 40 singles
      4. Ten Top 40 hits in duets with Mary Wells, Tammi Terrell, and Kim Weston
      5. Gaye collaborated with Motown producers on many hit songs
        • "Pride and Joy" (p10 r2, 1963) for Mickey Stevenson
        • "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved by You)" (p6 r4, 1965) for Holland-Dozier-Holland
        • "Ain't That Peculiar" (p8 r1, 1965) for Smokey Robinson
        • "Ain't Nothing Like the Real Thing" (p8 r1, 1968)
        • (Sung with Tammi Terrell and produced by Ashford and Simpson)
      6. Gaye produced hits for the Originals in the late 1960s
        • "Baby I'm for Real" (p14 r1, 1969)
        • "The Bells" (p12 r4, 1970)
      7. Gaye's most important production was his 1971 concept album What's Going On
    • Stevie Wonder
      1. His first hit was "Fingertips, pt. 2" at age 13
        • Live recording of an impromptu performance from a Motown revue concert
        • Spontaneity made this one of Motown's biggest hits
      2. Wonder had several hits through the late 1960s (after his voice changed) on songs he co-wrote
        • "Uptight (Everything's Alright)" (p3 r1, 1966)
        • "I Was Made to Love Her" (p2 r1, 1967)
        • "For Once in My Life" (p2 r2, 1968)
        • "My Cherie Amour" (p4 r4, 1969)
      3. He began producing his own records in 1970
        • "Signed, Sealed, Delivered, I'm Yours" (p3 r1)
      4. He produced his own album Where I'm Coming From in 1971
      5. That album contained two hit singles
        • "If You Really Loved Me" (p8 r4, 1971) and
        • "We Can Work It Out" (p13 r3, 1971): a cover of the Beatles' 1965 hit
      6. Stevie Wonder's writing and production skills helped Motown evolve into the 1970s
  • Motown's impact on the civil rights movement
    • Gordy truly believed that Motown artists should appeal to white middle class
      1. The carefully controlled choreography and charm-school training guaranteed that this would happen
      2. The Brill Building approach to the sound of the music also figured in
      3. Black Americans embraced the sound
        • They knew it sounded "white" but the artists were from their culture
        • Motown artists demonstrated that all blacks could assimilate into white culture
    • Those who considered Motown to be a "sell-out" of black identity and culture looked to the South
      1. Southern soul music countered the Motown move away from black cultural roots
      2. Motown songs maintained a strong sense of heritage while also promoting change
    • The Motown model serves as a forerunner to other labels in the 1970s
      1. George Clinton took black music in new directions that appealed to all racial groups
      2. Gamble and Huff launched the disco era using black pop as a foundation
        • They further extended the Motown/Brill Building approach to orchestrating songs
        • Their songs were also driven by up-tempo dance rhythms
  • Atlantic, Stax, and Southern Soul
    • Atlantic began the 1960s as a highly successful rhythm and blues oriented label
      1. They had incorporated the Leiber and Stoller/Brill Building approach into their song production
      2. Their sweet soul artists' records were successful
        • Drifters
        • Coasters
        • Ben E. King
      3. Producer Jerry Wexler wasn't getting to produce as much as he wanted to
        • Leiber and Stoller had taken over much of the production of the label's songs
      4. Wexler and Bert Berns signed Solomon Burke to the label and co-produced several hits
        • "Just Out of Reach (Of My Two Open Arms)" (p24 r7, 1961)
        • "If You Need Me" (p37 r2, 1963)
        • "Goodbye, Baby (Baby Goodbye)" (p33, 1964)
        • "Got to Get You off My Mind" (p22 r1, 1965)
        • "Tonight's the Night" (p28 r2, 1965)
      5. Wexler's renewed enthusiasm for production led him to explore southern black music styles
        • Southern black music was more emotional
        • It had an exuberance more commonly found in black gospel music
        • This quality was not evident in sweet soul songs by the Drifters or Ben E. King
      6. Jerry Wexler held an important role in developing southern soul music during the 1960s
    • The Memphis southern soul connection with New York
      1. Atlantic records formed a licensing agreement with Memphis-based Stax records
      2. Licensing agreements were common between large labels and small labels
        • The large label pressed copies using either their own label or the smaller label
        • These records were distributed by the larger label that had a bigger distribution network
        • The larger label took a percentage of the sales
        • Everybody wins
        • The small label's songs were usually proven regional hits
        • These songs were often in a unique style that the large label couldn't reproduce on its own
      3. Stax records formed in 1960 in Memphis by Jim Stewart and sister Estelle Axton (St+Ax = Stax)
        • Original name was Satellite Records
        • Wexler liked one of their records by Rufus Thomas called "Cause I Love You"
        • Sung by Thomas and his daughter Carla
        • Atlantic leased the record and another, "Gee Wiz," in 1961
        • "Gee Wiz" was a Top 10 hit in pop and rhythm and blues charts
      4. Atlantic and Stax set up leasing agreements for many songs during the early 1960s
        • "Last Night" (p3 r2, 1961) by the Mar-Keys—an instrumental
        • "Green Onions" (p3 r1, 1962) by Booker T. and the MG's—also an instrumental
        • "Walkin' the Dog!" (p10 r5, 1963), a dance hit by Rufus Thomas
      5. The records were recorded in Memphis under conditions similar to Motown's
        • In-house band: Booker T. and the MG's
        • Booker T. Jones on organ
        • Steve Cropper on guitar
        • Donald "Duck" Dunn on Bass
        • Al Jackson Jr. on drums
      6. Songwriters involved in the Stax songs were
        • David Porter
        • Isaac Hayes
        • Steve Cropper worked with Otis Redding as co-writer and producer
      7. The Stax operation was more casual than the Motown and certainly more so than at Atlantic
        • Musicians took on whatever role was necessary
        • There was more experimentation and spontaneity in the performances
        • Whatever the tracks lacked in polish was made up in sincerity and urgency
        • The music just sounded like everyone was trying harder and enjoying the effort
    • Otis Redding
      1. One of the most important Stax artists who helped bring attention to the "Stax sound"
        • "These Arms of Mine" (r29, 1963)
        • While only a rhythm and blues chart Top 40 hit, it brought Redding into the picture
        • Redding's vocal style is drawn heavily from gospel singing style
      2. In 1965 Redding began getting crossover hits
      3. Redding's gospel-influenced vocals and the hard-driving music accompaniment defined the Stax sound
        • "Mr. Pitiful" (p41 r10)
        • "I've Been Loving You Too Long" (p21 r2)
        • "Respect" (P35 r4)
        • "Try a Little Tenderness" (p25 r4, 1966)
        • "Sittin' on the Dock of the Bay" went to number one on pop and rhythm and blues charts in 1968
      4. Redding appeared at the Monterey Pop Festival in the summer of 1967
        • His appearance helped acquaint the hippie audience to southern soul music
      5. Redding was killed in a plane crash in December 1967; he didn't live to see his impact on pop music
  • Atlantic Records and the connection to Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama
    • Atlantic also recorded artists at Rick Hall's Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals
    • Wilson Pickett
      1. Atlantic producer Jerry Wexler discovered Pickett through a demo recording he sang
      2. Wexler and Bert Berns produced the song "If You Need Me" with singer Solomon Burke in 1961
      3. The Double L label also released the demo version with Pickett's vocal—competing with Atlantic
      4. When Pickett came to Atlantic, Wexler immediately signed him to the label
      5. Wexler took Pickett to Memphis to record with Stax musicians in the Stax style
        • They recorded "In the Midnight Hour" (p23 r 1, 1965)
        • The song featured a delayed backbeat that Wexler showed the band
        • Became a characteristic signature sound of the Stax records
      6. When studio time was difficult to get at Stax, Wexler moved to Fame studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama
      7. Some of Pickett's best-known songs were recorded there
        • "Land of 1000 Dances" (p6 r1, 1966)
        • "Mustang Sally" (p26 r6, 1966)
        • "Funky Broadway" (p8 r1, 1967)
      8. Atlantic had distributed songs from Dial Records in Nashville that were recorded at Fame Studios
        • Joe Tex's hit "Hold What You've Got" (p5 r2, 1965)
        • Wexler had licensed Percy Sledge's "When a Man Loves a Woman" (p1 r1, 1965)
        • Sledge's hit was recorded at Quinvy Studios near Muscle Shoals, but Fame Studios would do others.
    • Sam and Dave with Porter and Hayes
      1. Sam and Dave were Atlantic artists who recorded at Stax studios
      2. Stax owner Jim Stewart put them together with songwriters David Porter and Isaac Hayes
      3. This team functioned similarly to Motown's pairing of writer-producers with artists
        • Holland-Dozier-Holland with the Supremes
        • Norman Whitfield with the Temptations
      4. Sam and Dave had several hits as a result of this teamwork
        • "You Don't Know Like I Know" (r7, 1966)
        • "Hold On, I'm Comin'" (p21 r1, 1966)
        • The classic Sam and Dave number "Soul Man" (p2 r1, 1967) is also a result of their efforts
  • The Stax sound
    • Wilson Pickett's ''In the Midnight Hour" (one of his few hits that actually was recorded there)
      1. Simple verse form with instrumental interlude
      2. Introduction
        • Four-measure introduction featuring horns
        • Two measures of a simple two-chord pattern
        • The two-chord pattern is basis for the tune
        • Guitar and snare drum play together on beats 2 and 4
        • They are so late that they are almost out of time
      3. Stax recordings don't have backup vocals
        • Pickett's vocal is the primary focus of the song
        • Instrumental interlude uses a slightly varied chord pattern
        • This interlude creates a sense of formal variety
  • Southern soul in the Big Apple
    • Aretha Franklin
      1. Gospel-influenced singing style
        • Born in Memphis
        • Raised in Detroit
        • Recorded most of her hits in New York
      2. Daughter of Reverend C. L. Franklin
        • Well-known Baptist preacher in Detroit
        • Regularly broadcast his sermons
      3. Originally signed with Columbia in New York
        • Didn't do well there
        • Singing in a soft pop mainstream style
      4. Signed with Atlantic in 1966
      5. Jerry Wexler produced her first track in Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals
        • "I Never Loved a Man (The Way 1 Love You)" (p37 r9, 1967)
        • Dispute in the studio between Aretha's husband and someone from the Fame organization
        • They want back to New York
      6. All subsequent tracks were recorded in New York
        • Wexler flew in the rhythm section from Muscle Shoals
        • Rick Hall didn't know about it
        • "Respect" (p 1 r 1, 1967)
        • "Baby I Love You" (p4 r1, 1967)
        • "(You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman" (p2 r2, 1967)
        • "Chain of Fools" (p2 r1, 1968)
        • "Think"(p7 r1, 1968)
  • Motown, Atlantic, Stax, and issues of "blackness"
    • Consensus is that Motown records were less true to black culture than Stax records
      1. Motown's musical style is aimed at a pop market
      2. Both labels had sales as the main goal, so Stax would have aimed at a pop market as well
        • Motown arrangements were more inspired by successful pop arrangements
        • Stax arrangements appealed to a pop market because of their contrast to Motown
        • Stax balanced out the polish of Motown with their sincerity and spontaneity
      3. Discrepancies do confuse the issue
        1. Some Motown records sound more like Stax records
          • Martha and the Vandellas' "Dancing in the Street" is an example
          • Main difference is that they had backup vocal parts
          • Rhythm groove and backing musical tracks are tight and simple like at Stax
        2. Motown was a black-owned company
          • Motown producers and songwriters were black
          • Motown band was black
        3. Atlantic and Stax were white-owned
          • Atlantic and Stax producers were white
          • Stax songwriters were black and white
          • Stax band was 50 percent black and 50 percent white
          • Everyone at Muscle Shoals except actual singers were white
        4. The obvious question: Does race actually matter in the note-to-note performance process?
          • Musicians involved in all of the records played as required by the producers
          • Producers were ultimately responsible for the sound—they made all the creative decisions
  • 1968 was the year of change for black music in America
    • Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King was killed on April 4, 1968
      1. King was a highly respected advocate of racial equality
      2. His methods of achieving that were nonviolent
      3. Racial tensions had been escalating for years—this brought on waves of violent reactions
    • Atlantic was sold to Warner Brothers Seven Arts
      1. That affected the distribution deal with Stax
      2. Stax ended up being sold to Gulf Western
      3. The Stax team of writers, musicians, and producers drifted apart
    • Changes were occurring at Motown
      1. Holland-Dozier-Holland left Motown in 1967
      2. Berry Gordy wanted to move Motown to Hollywood to pursue movie possibilities
      3. Motown writers began writing more socially significant songs
        • As reaction to King's assassination
        • More pop music was dealing with social issues
        • An example: the Supremes' "Love Child" (p1 r2, 1968) about illegitimate urban children
      4. By the early 1970s Motown's top artist-writers began focusing on black urban life situations
  • James Brown
    • Unquestionably the most important black performer of the 1960s
      1. Brown was a member of the southern Georgia based Fabulous Flames in the 1950s
      2. Brown substituted for Little Richard when his hit "Tutti Frutti" led him away from Georgia
        • Richard was already committed to several performances in the south
        • Brown actually performed as Little Richard
      3. Brown's first success came with "Please Please Please" (r6, 1956) on King Records in Cincinnati
      4. He had some moderate crossover success with "Try Me" (r1 p48, 1958)
      5. Brown's early hits were rooted in the doo-wop style with backup vocals sung by the Flames
    • Moving from doo-wop to soul
      1. "Think" (p33 r7, 1960) featured new approaches to rhythm
        • The horn section was given a less melodic role
        • Horns provided accents for the rhythm section
        • Less emphasis on melody and/or harmony in the horn section
      2. Brown gained a reputation for his active stage performance
        • His performance emphasized athletic showmanship
        • A combination of singing and extremely energetic dancing
      3. He developed a trademark closing routine
        • Would collapse on the stage in exhaustion
        • Would be helped off the stage
        • Before he reached the side he would suddenly get energized and run back out and continue
      4. Brown and his manager, Ben Bart, released a live album in 1963
        • Live at the Apollo reached number two on the pop charts
        • Good example of his energetic performance style
        • Demonstrated his stylistic range
      5. Beginning in 1964 Brown began to focus his songs on hard-driving rhythmic accompaniment
        • "Out of Sight" (p24, 1964)
        • "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag, Pt. 1" (p8 r1, 1965)
        • "I Got You (I Feel Good)" (p3 r1, 1965)
        • "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" (p8 r1, 1966)
        • "Cold Sweat, Pt. 1" (p7 r1, 1967)
    • Brown took control of all aspects of his music and career
      1. He wrote and produced his songs
      2. King Records owner Sid Nathan and manager Ben Bart died in 1968
      3. After that Brown handled his own business affairs
      4. The musicians in his band were extremely talented
        • Brown rehearsed his band relentlessly
        • The band was one of the tightest performance ensembles in the 1960s
        • Heavy emphasis on tightly interwoven rhythmic grooves between horns and rhythm section
        • He would fine musicians who made mistakes during shows
      5. The hit "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" exemplifies the James Brown sound
        • The track opens with a sustained chord
        • Verses employ the 12-bar blues structure
        • There is an eight-bar bridge over a static harmony that returns at the end as a coda
        • The rhythmic groove is created by the full ensemble
        • The arrangement differs from Stax arrangements because of the stops at the ends of the verses
        • No backup vocals—separating him from Motown and his earlier 1950s doo-wop style
    • Brown was a positive force behind the "Black Pride" movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s
      1. He did not compromise his black culture in his music
        • Motown and Atlantic purposely created music that would appeal to a white middle-class audience
        • Brown's turn to strong rhythmic focus in his music foreshadowed 1970s funk
      2. Brown's contributions to funk make him one of the most important figures in 1970s black pop
  • Brown in Boston
    • Institutionalized racism in America had reached a dangerous level by the 1960s
      1. Black musicians formed a strong voice in response to the civil rights movement
      2. During the 1950s black performers spoke out in the fight for equal rights for black Americans
        • Harry Belafonte
        • Lena Horne
        • Louis Armstrong
      3. Early 1960s black artists included clear political ideas in their music
        • Sam Cooke's "A Change Is Gonna Come,"
        • Nina Simone's "Mississippi Goddamn"
        • Joe Tex's "The Love You Save"
        • Curtis Mayfield's vocal group the Impressions: "People Get Ready" and "Keep On Pushing"
      4. These and other black artists propelled the Black Pride movement forward during the late 1960s
    • James Brown single-handedly calmed rioting in several cities the night following the King assassination
      1. Black Americans reacted violently to Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination on April 4, 1968
      2. The next night Brown gave a concert in Boston that was televised across the country
        • He started the show by asking the viewers to be calm and stay in—to not destroy their community
        • He reminded black viewers about King's dedication to peaceful change
        • Boston and several other cities were relatively quiet that night
      3. He went to Washington, D.C., the next night and gave a speech on television that ended riots there
      4. James Brown proved that a black musician had the power to bring peace to violent eruption
      5. He had always maintained, "The music wasn't a part of the revolution. The music was the revolution."

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