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R and B, Singers, and Latin Jazz
Chapter Outline

Fusion is a different narrative for understanding jazz. It perceives jazz to be in a constant dialogue with the "popular," whether in dance grooves or popular song. We begin this chapter by considering the aftermath of bebop, when jazz begins losing the populist traditions of the Swing Era (Louis Jordan). By the 1950s, musicians began to realize that jazz had lost its touch and tried connecting with new currents in pop music, especially those who (like Ray Charles) defined new archetypes of "blackness." We consider "soul jazz," which aggressively seeks to situate jazz improvisation in new grooves, and examine the organ trios (featuring the Hammond B-3) that fill nightclubs in black neighborhoods. We also consider the relationship between jazz and the pop singing of Frank Sinatra, Ella Fitzgerald, Nat King Cole, and Sarah Vaughan. We look at the use of jazz in music for film and television, where jazz becomes a symbol for urban tension, and examine the Latin jazz phenomenon (including bossa nova), where jazz develops a working kinship with an entirely different dance groove.

  1. New Idioms
    1. The late 1960s saw the rise of a fusion between jazz and the rhythms, instrumentation, and repertory of rock. But fusions have always played a role in jazz history (e.g., among African, European, and Latin American musics)
    2. All musics take from other genres and styles, and jazz is no exception. Third Stream, discussed earlier, was one example. In the next two chapters different kinds of fusions of jazz and popular music are explored.
    3. Up to this point the authors have discussed jazz as a series of chronologically ordered creative leaps that are born out of the previous style and reflect their own times.
    4. A "fusion" approach provides an alternative way of looking at the history of jazz in that it looks beyond jazz at the parallel changes in pop culture, including dances styles and uses of technology, and their interactions with jazz.
  2. Historical Background: Before World War II
    1. Early jazz musicians played music and entertained audiences and employers in various kinds of commercial venues.
    2. Although jazz was always played for dancers, a gap grew between those who wanted to play jazz for its own sake and those who focused on prevailing public tastes, so that by the 1930s jazz (solos and hot rhythms) was part of a broader pop music phenomenon of ballroom dance bands.
    3. By the 1930s, perceived dichotomies of hot versus sweet and art versus commerce were in place, and yet bands on each side borrowed from each other (sweet bands played some jazz; hot band hired pop singers and played ballads and novelty tunes). Jazz moved to the center of the pop music industry with the bands that could do both, because audiences wanted both.
  3. Swing's Triple Pop Legacy
    1. As swing faded, it became clear that there were three other successors aside from bebop:
      1. Rhythm and blues
      2. Mainstream pop vocals
      3. Latin jazz
    2. We have seen how bebop prevailed as post-swing jazz, but as it fractured the pop- jazz connection, other, more accessible musics became increasingly popular.
    3. The R & B Connection
      1. 1940s: an offshoot of swing called "jump" (eventually part of R & B) focused on blues, fast tempos, brash, humorous lyrics, and ensemble riffs. Jazzers, including beboppers, played some of this music alongside R & B musicians. Numerous big-band leaders put it into the repertoire.
      2. In addition to swing, eight-to-the-bar boogie-woogie rhythm proved essential to R & B. Pianists and blues "shouters" like Big Joe Turner recorded successfully during the 1930s and 1940s and reached the white mainstream through Louis Jordan.
    4. Louis Jordan (1908-1975)
      1. Alto saxophonist, singer, songwriter, bandleader. Had sixty hits on both the R & B charts and predominantly white, mainstream pop charts.
      2. He worked with his father's band and bands in the South and Midwest; in 1946 he joined Chick Webb in New York, where he had limited success.
      3. 1938: formed his own band, Louis Jordan and His Tympani Five. Sounding like a big band, it proved that a small ensemble could be successful and, as a result, small bands became very popular in jazz and pop after World War II.
      4. Much of Jordan's success was due to his use of southern black cultural humor that blacks related to and whites could "get." He emphasized the humanness of being black (a lesson learned from his early experience in minstrelsy), creating new black archetypes.
      5. 1940s: recorded with major stars (Bing Crosby, Armstrong, Fitzgerald) and appeared in movies. He was a real showman, and some of his hits have endured. His career slowed down in 1951 due to illness, but his influence can be heard in the music of Chuck Berry, Bill Haley, and Ray Charles.
    5. R & B's Influence on Jazz
      1. As the audience for modern jazz shrunk, some jazz players started to play both jazz and R & B, responding to the growing demand for party music. Four examples follow:
        1. Earl Bostic (sax): arranger and player in some major swing bands but not generally recognized until he had an R & B hit in 1951 with Ellington's "Flamingo." Budding jazz stars played in his band, including Coltrane and Jaki Byard.
        2. Johnny Hodges (sax): on a five-year hiatus from the Ellington band, his five-piece ensemble recorded an R & B hit in 1951 called "Castle Rock." Hodges did not take a solo since tastes had changed from the elegance of his style to one that was brassier with a strong backbeat.
        3. Wild Bill Davis (pianist, arranger): a Louis Jordan sideman and formally trained in music, he played in big bands before joining Jordan as arranger and pianist in 1945. He left in 1949 to concentrate on the organ.
        4. Bill Doggett (pianist, arranger): replacement for Davis. An experienced jazzer who worked in several big bands. In 1956 he scored a number one hit on organ (after hearing Davis) with "Honky Tonk (Parts 1 and 2)." Rock and roll from this period was inspired by R & B and sought technical know-how from jazz. Dogget later returned to jazz arranging.
    6. Ray Charles (1930-2004) and Soul Jazz
      1. Ray Charles single-handedly represented a swing, bop, R & B, gospel, and rock fusion while alienating churchgoing blacks with his use of gospel techniques in secular music.
      2. African American church music had always been a part of jazz and complaints about using church music in a secular setting were not new. However, Charles took it much further in terms of his singing and piano style and use of a choir of women singers, the Raelettes.
      3. Charles was born poor in Georgia, raised in Florida, became blind at seven, and was orphaned at fourteen. He started playing jazz and hillbilly music. In 1948 he moved to Seattle, where he made his first recordings and placed a few hits on the R & B charts with a Nat King Cole type of jazz trio.
      4. On the road he developed a style that combined blues, bop harmonies, and the shouts and backbeat of gospel. He had an R & B hit in 1954 ("I Got A Woman") and went to Newport in 1958, where he played a diverse range of pieces including his trademark gospel-inspired rock and roll as well as bop themes.
      5. In 1959 he grabbed the white audience with "What I Say" and signed a contract with ABC-Paramount, under which he gained the right to use big bands and string orchestras and to choose his own material. Later he had a huge hit with "Georgia on My Mind" and sang country and western songs.
    7. Soul Jazz
      1. Vocalists like Charles and others reached a larger audience than jazz musicians leading their own groups. For jazz musicians wanting to reach a mainstream audience, the way to go was through soul jazz.
      2. Soul jazz is based on the hard bop of Blakey, Silver, and Adderley, with a strong backbeat; an aggressive urban sound; gospel-style chords; simplified basic harmonies (compared to bop); short solos; clear dance rhythms; and an emphasis on ethnic language; and cultural references such as food, church, and parties.
      3. 1960s: the venerable jazz label Blue Note had a series of hard-bop hits. Soul jazz musicians made their own three-minute singles suitable for pop radio.
    8. Jimmy Smith
      1. Very popular and influential as a jazz and R & B fusion artist in the black community during the 1950s and 1960s, usually in the context of a trio: B3 Hammond organ with drums and guitar or saxophone.
      2. Born in Pennsylvania, he studied piano with his parents and with pointers from Bud Powell; he then toured with his father, playing blues- and gospel- inflected music in nightclubs. After serving in World War I, he studied theory, harmony, and string bass.
      3. Played piano for years in local R & B bands and then heard Wild Bill Davis on organ in 1953 and decided to switch. By this time the organ was more acceptable as a jazz instrument.
      4. The Hammond B3
        1. Smith's interest in the organ coincided with the development of the B3 Hammond organ in 1955. This was a tidier version of the A model from 1935, which never caught on.
        2. Smith's knowledge of bass and mastery of the B3's foot pedals allowed him to play complete bass lines, setting a precedent for jazz organists. He also combined the virtuosity of bop, R & B rhythms, and gospel, which was commonly played by the organ.
      5. Smith introduced the trio in 1955 in Atlantic City and then came to New York just when Bill Dogget released his organ hit "Honky Tonk," thus bringing the organ to a broad public. Although critics were ambivalent, Smith combined keyboard, drawbars, and pedals like nobody else.
      6. Smith recorded prolifically, emphasizing the same themes as Louis Jordan: leisure time, church, and food. In 1962 he signed with Verve, which allowed him to reach more people. He often played with guitarist Wes Montgomery at this point.
    9. "The Organ Grinder's Swing"
      1. Recorded in 1956, this piece marks the return to the trio format after several big-band albums and the start of serious consideration of Smith by critics. This piece is a swing-era novelty tune recorded earlier by a number of swing bands.
      2. Smith is playing with drummer Grady Tate and guitarist Kenny Burrell. Although both are bluesy players, Burrell is usually cooler than Smith's rowdy approach, although here he is quite funky.
      3. Smith adds mumbles and bagpipe-like textures along with his typical organ squawks and tremolos.
  4. Singers in the Mainstream
    1. 1950s: golden age for singers of the American songbook. Four reasons:
      1. Returning soldiers were used to singers with big bands, which made for a built-in audience for the large number of vocalists who had graduated from big bands and were looking for solo careers.
      2. There were many songs from theater, movies, and record sessions still being written, in addition to the standard repertory from the 1920s-1950s, with many of the composers still alive and promoting their catalogs.
      3. The 45-rpm record (introduced in the 1940s) was good for single hits while the 33-rpm LP attracted more mature audience for singers.
      4. The rise of TV during the 1950s provided exposure for famous wartime singers on variety shows, which were a staple of early TV.
    2. Touched by Jazz, Touched by Pop
      1. Singers from this period grew up with swing and maintained this connection, especially when rock and roll started to dominate the market.
      2. Rosemary Clooney's novelty hit of the early 1950s "Come On-a My House," allowed her to record LPs with Ellington and other jazz musicians for much of the rest of her career.
      3. Nat King Cole was a good jazz pianist who became a very successful pop singer. Cole started by singing and playing in church and by 1939 had started to popularize the piano, guitar, and bass trio. He had a hit with a novelty song (1943) but still was known as a pianist who occasionally sang R & B.
      4. After the war he became wildly popular with songs like "Mona Lisa," although he continued to record on piano with jazz musicians. He was so popular he was the first African American to be offered his own TV show. It was canceled due to lack of advertising support.
      5. Cole continued to be successful until the 1960s, but his piano playing was obscured by his success as a pop singer,
    3. Frank Sinatra (1915-1998)
      1. Respected by jazz musicians, old and new, Sinatra started out imitating his idol, Bing Crosby, but developed his own style by listening to singers like Billy Holiday.
      2. Sinatra believed that phrasing should emphasize the lyric. Between 1939 and 1942 he became popular as a big-band singer (Harry James and Tommy Dorsey). His female fans screamed and fainted at his live performances.
      3. 1940s: earned his own radio show and started a film career. Sang mostly standards from the 1920s and newer pieces composed specifically for him, all at a slow to medium tempo.
      4. The Second Act
        1. After the war, his career fell apart due to resentment on the part of returning servicemen for Sinatra's lack of contribution to the war effort and the popularity of newer singers such as Clooney and Cole. His personal life started to fall apart.
        2. Sinatra reinvented himself as a hipster, restarted his film career with award-winning performances, and started to focus more on up-tempo swing numbers accompanied by large ensembles arranged by well-respected arrangers such as Nelson Riddle.
        3. He did not improvise but rather phrased well and embellished melodies, all with a rhythmic "businessman's bounce." Ellington admired him for making songs believable.
        4. Sinatra was one of the first artists to think of an LP as a nontheatrical opera wherein all the songs reflect a theme. He was also the anti-Presley during Elvis Presley's rise to fame.
        5. "The Birth of the Blues"
          1. 1952: shows his transition to a swinger. He toys with his voice and embellishes the melody, including bending some of the notes.
          2. This piece is typical of Sinatra's repertoire during this period. Crosby originally sang it for a 1941 movie of the same name. Sinatra sings the well-known verse as well as the chorus. Sinatra builds excitement with high notes but also retreats to his ballad mode.
          3. Big band and TV arranger Heinie Beau arranged this piece, adding an intro and a coda, obbligatos played by alto sax and trumpet, wah-wah effects played by the brass, evoking the sound of 1920s King Oliver, and featuring drums at the beginning and end.
    4. Sarah Vaughan (1924-1990)
      1. Sinatra comes from Tin Pan Alley and swing; Vaughan comes from the heart of jazz: bop harmonies, rhythms, and improvisation. She made jazz accessible like no other, although many tried.
      2. Vaughan was born in Newark, New Jersey, and learned piano from church organist mother. She won the Apollo Theater's Amateur Night when she was eighteen. Earl Hines heard her there and offered her a job in his band, sharing piano and singing duties with Billy Eckstine.
      3. She recorded bop in 1944, and in 1946 she successfully headlined New York's Café Society. She was signed by Columbia Records in 1949.
      4. Taking risks
        1. Vaughan explored harmony through her piano and applied this to her singing. She had a range exceeding four octaves and precise intonation, a feeling for the blues from her gospel roots, and an excellent sense swing, all of which allowed her to explore a tune like an instrumentalist.
        2. Columbia wanted her to sing "straighter," but even accompanied by a large orchestra, she still played with the melody.
        3. By the time she signed with Mercury Records in 1954, she was recording both pop hits like "Make Yourself Comfortable" and jazz classics with Clifford Brown.
        4. As with Fitzgerald, who was singing American songbook classics and scatting, Vaughn also fused pop and jazz. She was happy to work in both fields as long as the music was good.
        5. During the 1960s, a new crop of recording executives tried to rein in her improvisatory approach to singing.
        6. By 1967, she had had enough and quit singing for four years, after which she reinvented herself by working major concert venues with just a trio and occasionally a big band with guest stars at times. Only then did she return to recording, this time on her own terms.
        7. "Baby, Won't You Please Come Home?"
          1. Although a standard from the 1920s it was ignored by bop musicians, so this is an unusual choice.
          2. It is also unusual in that she is accompanied by just guitar (Barney Kessel) and bass (Joe Comfort), instead of her more usual studio orchestra, leaving her exposed. But that doesn't stop her from playing with the material.
          3. The arrangement consists of an intro followed by three choruses of a thirty-two-bar AABA form and an extended coda. Each chorus has a different feel, and Vaughan alters her vocal quality and vibrato throughout the performance.
          4. Unlike Sinatra, she doesn't build to climactic notes but rather uses her range to embellish notes. She varies the length of her phrases to play against the accompaniment or extend an improvised melodic idea.
        8. Meanwhile: Jazz on TV
          1. As jazz grew farther from the mainstream public, it began to embody four cultural clichés. Jazz on TV of the 1950s tells the story.
          2. Jazzers as urban slow-witted outsiders and jive-talking beatniks with "crazy" head and facial hair, singing aimless scat. They were treated with comical disdain.
          3. The sound of jazz, especially the saxophone, associated with easy women or a bad part of town. Many detective shows featured jazz scores, some by jazz musicians such as Count Basie and Benny Carter.
          4. Jazz as adult, sexy, super-hip, and not for squares. Hip comedians such as Lenny Bruce and writers such as Norman Mailer loved and pondered jazz. This positive but tiresome image disappeared in the 1960s as rock grew up.
          5. Jazz musicians on variety, talk, educational shows, and specials on jazz (e.g., The Sound of Jazz). Although jazz was seen on TV at this time more often than in the thirty years since, the representation of jazz was circumscribed by public taste (singers were favored and modernists were rarely invited) and ideas about race (African American appearances were limited).
        9. Jazz Goes to the Movies
          1. Jazz has a historical connection with the movies that ranges from live ragtime accompaniment to representations of urban seediness.
          2. During the Swing Era, jazz came to represent American vitality and sentimentality. After the war it went back to the seedier side of American life.
          3. 1950s: Jazz symbolized shady women and questionable parts of town.
          4. Although most of the jazz film scores were written by seasoned Hollywood pros, they tended to be formulaic overstatements. Some directors, especially European ones, hired real jazz musicians
          5. Director Robert Wise broke through the American avoidance of serious jazz in film with two movies: I Want to Live (1958), for which a swing band arranger wrote the music and which included a "cool" jazz band that included Gerry Mulligan, and Odds Against Tomorrow (1959,) scored by John Lewis. Ellington scored Preminger's Anatomy of a Murder (1959), a movie that is not about city sleaze. This was an exception and still is.
  5. Latin Jazz
    1. Dance beats from the Caribbean have had a long relationship with jazz (Morton's Latin "tinge"). Postwar jazz was especially influenced by Cuban music (salsa) and Brazilian music (bossa nova)
    2. Cuban influence includes the rumba of the 1930s, mambo of the 1940s and cha-cha-cha of the 1950s. Cuban bands in the states offered little jazz but much rhythmic vitality and great showmanship-a taste of what American tourists found in Cuba.
    3. Latin Pop, Neighbors, and Copyright
      1. Violinist and Latin music's most famous bandleader, Xavier Cugat grew up in Cuba. He played with Havana's Grand Opera Company and the Berlin Symphony before starting his own highly successful band in 1929, playing Los Angeles and New York. His fame peaked in 1940 with hit records and frequent appearances in movies.
      2. He did not play jazz as such but furthered the vogue for Latin music. America's Good Neighbor Policy with Latin America helped his success during the 1930s.
      3. Another factor that helped the popularity of Latin music was the 1940 battle between the ASCAP and BMI royalty collection groups. ASCAP didn't want their licensed music played on radio for free, so broadcasters, who didn't want to pay high licensing fees, formed their own rights organization, BMI. Before new rates were successfully negotiated, ASCAP songs were taken off the air, leaving room for South American songwriters.
      4. Walt Disney used Latin composers for his movies that contributed to the Good Neighbor Policy. These movies introduced several South American songs recorded by Crosby and Bird, which became popular with the American public. Latin leading men started to appear in films, but perhaps the most influential artist was singer Carmen Miranda, who popularized samba in her own country (Brazil) and became wildly popular in Hollywood movies.
    4. Mario Bauzá (1911-1993) and Machito (1908-1984)
      1. Jazz and Cuban music started to develop a close relationship during the war, a relationship that only became visible thereafter. The emergence of Cubop, an Afro-Cuban style of jazz, was partly a response to Cugat's showboating. It was instigated by big band trumpeter and arranger Mario Bauzá who, in 1939, started an Afro-Cuban band with bandleader, singer, and maracas player Machito (Frank Grillo).
      2. Machito was raised in Havana and moved to the States in 1937, where he worked in a number of Latin bands before joining Bauzá in 1939. This band folded for lack of work. Bauzá joined Cab Calloway and Machito joined Cugat before forming his own Afro-Cuban band in 1940 and hiring Bauzá as director, who in turn, hired young arrangers to get the jazz sound.
      3. After Machito returned from the army, the ensemble crated much interest among modern jazz musicians-Stan Kenton even recorded a tribute to Machito.
      4. The basis of Cuban music and Cubop is the clave, an underlying rhythmic ostinato, quite different than the backbeat-accented forward momentum of swing rhythm. The rhythm section also has more percussion instruments including timbales, congas, bongos, maracas, claves, and guiros.
    5. The Dizzy Factor
      1. The real breakthrough for Latin jazz came when Dizzy Gillespie started working toward a Latin jazz fusion with his 1946 big band, for which he hired conga player Chano Pozo and bongo player Chiquitico for a concert at Carnegie Hall. Dizzy learned about this music from Bauzá when they were both in the Calloway band.
      2. Although Gillespie had already shown interest in Afro rhythms (e.g., "A Night in Tunisia"), he knew very little about Cuban music until Bauzá started teaching him. He gave Pozo free rein in the band from 1947 to the end of 1948. During this time the band recorded "Cubana Be," "Cubana Bop" arranged by George Russell (and an early example of modal jazz), and the highly influential "Manteca."
    6. "Manteca"
      1. Manteca means "lard" or "grease" and is also slang for marijuana. The piece was Pozo's idea and starts with interlocking congas and bass ostinato much different from the usual walking bass. The piece is built up from staggered riff entries.
      2. Pozo originally wanted to keep the music completely Afro-Cuban by stretching out the groove, but Gillespie added some jazz content through a written, harmonically hip bridge underpinned by a walking-bass line.
    7. A New Movement/Salsa
      1. "Tanga" was recorded in 1948 by Machito for a recorded survey called The Jazz Scene. It contains a solo by jazz saxophonist Flip Phillips in front of six percussionists. "Tanga," in contrast to "Manteca," approaches Latin-jazz fusion from the Cuban side.
      2. The years 1950 to 1955 were the main period of Latin influence on jazz: Bird recorded with Machito, Bud Powell used clave in "Un Poco Loco," and Kenton used Latin instruments in his rhythm section. But even after it receded in the mid-1950s, Machito continued playing and making records, some with jazz solos and some without. Cuban style became part of a broader Latin scene that included bossa nova, tango, and mariachi.
      3. Afro-Cuban musics fused with other Caribbean areas such as Puerto Rico which, in New York at least, resulted in salsa, a major urban music by the 1970s.
      4. Jazz is a given in salsa. Many key salsa performers were born in New York, with strong ties to both Machito and Dizzy. Ray Baretto, for example, played jazz as much as salsa and was the first to play jazz congas.
      5. At the same time jazz musicians hired Latin rhythm sections. Cal Tjader was especially successful with his 1964 recording Soul Sauce.
    8. Mongo Santamaria ( 1922-2003)
      1. A percussionist with Tjader, Santamaria left the group and within a year had his own hit with "Watermelon Man," written by Herbie Hancock. This hit helped pave the way for Latin-soul fusion.
      2. Born in Havana, Santamaria studied violin and then drums. He arrived in the states in 1950, where he worked with Tito Puente for seven years, after which he became known to the jazz world through his work with Tjader. He then started to freelance, innovating charanga by adding trumpet and saxophone to the standard instrumentation of flute and violin.
      3. He became the archetypal crossover musician. He made many commercial recordings but also collaborated with Dizzy. His "Afro Blue," recorded by Coltrane, remains a jazz standard.
    9. "Watermelon Man"
      1. This is a version of a sixteen-bar blues with alternating tonic and subdominant chords for the four-bar A sections and the dominant harmony on the eight-bar B section. There is a lot of space in the lead, leaving room for the steady, underlying vamp.
      2. This is essentially dance music because of the centrality of the vamp. There is a trumpet solo but it may have been composed-Hancock's 1965 arrangement for Santamaria contains the same solo. This record has a jazz feeling, but no jazz substance.
    10. Bossa Nova
      1. Samba originated in nineteenth-century Brazil as an amalgam of march rhythms and African dance music. It does not use clave but rather is characterized by two beats per measure with an accent on the second beat. There were a number of samba hits during the 1930s and 1940s, which is also when Carmen Miranda was a hit in Hollywood.
      2. In 1958 Brazilian singer and actress Elizete Cardoso released an album based on the songs of Vinicius de Moraes, playwright, composer, and diplomat, which he wrote with Anontio Carlos Jobim. Cardoso is accompanied on several tracks by guitarist Joao Gilberto. The music is called bossa nova.
      3. Vinicius first hired Jobim to write music for his play based on the Orpheus and Eurydice legend. After the album was released, the play was made into a movie by French filmmaker Marcel Camus called Black Orpheus with a score by guitarist Luis Bonfa and some tunes by Jobim, all of them in a samba style.
      4. These were the three key players in the emergence of bossa nova: Vinicius, Jobim (one of the great songwriters of the twentieth century), and Gilberto, a key interpreter of bossa nova.
      5. Jobim insisted that bossa nova was not just another form of samba but a radical break from it. Like bop, bossa nova broke with the past in terms of harmonic and melodic sophistication. It represented a young, new attitude.
    11. Charlie Byrd (1925-1999) and Stan Getz (1927-1991)
      1. Before 1960, bossa nova was mainly a Brazilian phenomenon, but with the Cuban revolution (1959) cutting Cuba off from the mainland and the discovery of Jobim by touring jazz musicians, bossa nova became known in the States.
      2. Dizzy Gillespie was the first off the mark in 1961 when he added some bossa standards to his repertoire, but he didn't release his Brazilian album until later, leaving the door open to others.
      3. One of these was acoustic guitarist Charlie Byrd. Meeting Gilberto and Jobim made him realize that bossa nova was better for guitar than other kinds of Latin music.
      4. Byrd recruited saxophonist Stan Getz to record. Getz was an influential tenor player who had played with Kenton, Goodman, and Woody Herman's "Four Brothers" band.
      5. Getz's "Early Autumn" solo made him a star but his problems with drugs forced him to leave the United States for Europe. Upon his return in 1961 he worked with Eddie Sauter. He had also worked with Machito earlier, and he loved the records from Brazil that Byrd had brought him.
      6. Getz joining Byrd got American labels interested in the music. They released the album Jazz Samba in 1962 and an edited version of Desifinado featuring Getz from that album became a number one hit. Other jazzers jumped on the bandwagon.
      7. In 1963 Getz recorded Getz/Gilberto with the Brazilian originators of the music. Gilberto's wife, Astrud, who had never sung professionally before, sang the worldwide hit "Girl From Ipanema" at Getz's request.
    12. "Samba Dees Days"
      1. An original by Byrd for the Jazz Samba album that captures both the rhythmic and wistful elements of bossa nova. He uses a typical Jobim device in the bridge: the repetition of one note (e.g., Jobim's "One Note Samba").
      2. Getz is the star here, illustrated by his varied phrasing, single-note repetition, climactic melodic phrases, fluidity, overarching control of the form, tender but forceful timbre, and melodic inventiveness.
    13. Bossa Nova at Fifty
      1. Bossa nova remained popular even as it waned as jazz-fusion music. Sergio Mendes was a Horace Silver-influenced Latin player who only became famous after he jettisoned the jazz content.
      2. The year 2008 saw the fiftieth anniversary of bossa nova. Various performances and scholarly activities took place in Brazil to celebrate it. Modern bossa nova mixes with rock and classical music. Young singers like Marisa Monte, a leading singer of Música Popular Brasileira (MPB, or Brazilian Popular Music), draws on bossa nova in the context of rock and soul.
      3. At the same time, performers such as Rosa Passos kept the traditions by singing the music of Jobim and others. Since a return to performing in 1996, she has toured the world, at times with classical cellist Yo-Yo Ma.
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