This chapter considers the influence of historical perspective-
the perpetuation and valuing of an ever-lengthening
jazz past-on developments in jazz throughout its own history.
This outlook is especially relevant within educational
frameworks and begins in the 1930s with the development of
jazz history and the revival of New Orleans jazz in live performance
(continuing to the present day with Preservation
Hall). It deepens in the 1950s, as jazz moves into academia
and festivals and as musicians begin creating music that refers
back to the past. In the 1970s, jazz was understood as a "tradition,"
and avant-garde artists began making a point of including
music as far back as ragtime in their new compositions.
Until the sudden breakthrough of Wynton Marsalis, avantgarde
and fusion jazz reigned through the 1980s. Marsalis's
career is considered through Jazz at Lincoln Center as well
as the success of the Young Lions and the renewed interest in
the older guard (Dexter Gordon, Joe Henderson). Nostalgia
plays a role (Harry Connick, Diana Krall), reinforced by CD
reissues that crowd record stores with older music. Repertory
bands and the use of jazz in film (Kansas City, Bird), advertising,
and documentaries (Ken Burns's Jazz) are also examined
as are the peculiar historicism of Shannon Jackson and James
Carter, both of whom transform the tradition in unexpected ways.