Chapter Study Outline

  1. New Idioms
    1. The late 1960s saw the rise of a fusion between jazz and the rhythms, instrumentation, and repertory of rock. But fusions have always played a role in jazz history (e.g., among African, European, and Latin American musics).
    2. All musics take from other genres and styles, and jazz is no exception. Third Stream, discussed earlier, was one example. In the next two chapters different kinds of fusions of jazz and popular music are explored, beginning in this CHAPTER with the 1940s.
    3. Up to this point the authors have discussed jazz as a series of chronologically ordered creative leaps that are born out of the previous style and reflect their own times.
    4. A "fusion" approach provides an alternative way of looking at the history of jazz in that it looks beyond jazz at the parallel changes in pop culture, including dances styles and uses of technology, and their interactions with jazz.
    5. Early jazz musicians played music and entertained audiences and employers in various kinds of commercial venues.
    6. Although jazz was always played for dancers, a gap grew between those who wanted to play jazz for its own sake and those who focused on prevailing public tastes, so that by the 1930s jazz (solos and hot rhythms) was part of a broader pop music phenomenon of ballroom dance bands.
    7. By the 1930s, perceived dichotomies of hot versus sweet and art versus commerce were in place, and yet bands on each side borrowed from each other (sweet bands played some jazz; hot bands hired pop singers and played ballads and novelty tunes).
    8. Earlier chapters have detailed the ways in which bebop prevailed as post-swing jazz, but as it fractured the pop-jazz connection, other, more accessible musics became increasingly popular. As swing faded, it became clear that there were three additional stylistic successors aside from bebop:
      1. Rhythm and blues (R&B)
      2. Mainstream pop vocals
      3. Latin jazz
    9. The R&B Connection
      1. 1940s: an offshoot of swing called "jump" focused on blues, fast tempos, brash, humorous lyrics, and ensemble riffs. This music eventually came to be known as rhythm and blues (R&B) as the former term for this market—"race records," popular music by black artists intended for black audiences—began to lose cachet in popular trade magazines such as Billboard.
      2. Jazzers, including beboppers, played some of this music alongside R&B musicians. Numerous big-band leaders put it into the repertoire. It reached the white mainstream through Louis Jordan.
    10. Louis Jordan (1908-1975)
      1. Alto saxophonist, singer, songwriter, bandleader. Had sixty hits on both the R&B charts and predominantly white, mainstream pop charts.
      2. In 1936 he joined Chick Webb in New York. By 1938, he had formed his own band, Louis Jordan and His Tympani Five. Sounding like a big band, it proved that a small ensemble could be successful, and, as a result, small bands became popular in jazz and pop after World War II.
      3. Much of Jordan's success was due to his use of a southern black cultural humor that blacks related to and whites could decode well enough. He emphasized the humanity of being black (a lesson learned from his early experience in minstrelsy), creating new black archetypes.
      4. He was a true showman, and some of his hits have endured. His influence can be heard in the music of Chuck Berry, Bill Haley, and Ray Charles, among others.
    11. Ray Charles (1930-2004)
      1. Ray Charles was born poor in Georgia, raised in Florida. He single-handedly represented a swing, bop, R & B, gospel, and rock fusion using gospel techniques in secular music. African American church music had always been connected to jazz and complaints about using church music in a secular setting were not new. However, Charles took it much further in terms of his singing and piano style and use of a choir of women singers, the Raelettes.
      2. He had an R&B hit in 1954 ("I Got A Woman"). In 1959 he grabbed the white audience with "What I Say." Later he had a huge hit with "Georgia on My Mind" and sang country and western songs.
      3. Vocalists like Charles and others reached a larger audience than jazz musicians leading their own groups. For jazz musicians wanting to reach a mainstream audience, the way to go was through soul jazz.
      4. Soul jazz is based on the hard bop of Blakey, Silver, and Adderley, with a strong backbeat; an aggressive urban sound; gospel-style chords; simplified basic harmonies (compared to bop); short solos; clear dance rhythms; an emphasis on ethnic language; and cultural references such as food, church, and parties.
      5. 1960s: the venerable jazz label Blue Note had a series of hard bop hits. Soul jazz musicians made their own three-minute singles suitable for pop radio.
    12. Jimmy Smith (1925-2005)
      1. Popular and influential as a jazz and R&B fusion artist in the black community during the 1950s and 1960s, usually in the context of a trio that included a Hammond B3 organ with drums and guitar or saxophone.
      2. Born in Pennsylvania, he studied piano with his parents and with pointers from Bud Powell. He played piano for years in local R&B bands and then heard Wild Bill Davis on organ in 1953 and decided to switch.
      3. The Hammond B3
        1. Smith's interest in the organ coincided with the development of the Hammond B3 organ in 1955. This was a tidier version of the A model from 1935, which never caught on.
        2. Smith's knowledge of bass and mastery of the B3's foot pedals allowed him to play complete bass lines, setting a precedent for jazz organists. He also combined the virtuosity of bop, R&B rhythms, and gospel, which was commonly played by the organ.
      4. Smith introduced the trio in 1955 in Atlantic City. He recorded prolifically, emphasizing the same themes as Louis Jordan: leisure time, church, and food.
    13. "The Organ Grinder's Swing"
      1. Recorded in 1956, this piece marks the return to the trio format after several big-band albums and the start of serious consideration of Smith by critics. This piece is a swing-era novelty tune recorded earlier by a number of swing bands.
      2. Smith is playing with drummer Grady Tate and guitarist Kenny Burrell. Although both are bluesy players, Burrell is usually cooler than Smith's rowdy approach, although here he is quite funky.
      3. Smith adds mumbles and bagpipe-like textures along with his typical organ squawks and tremolos.
  2. Singers in the Mainstream
    1. The 1950s are often referred to as the golden age for singers of the American songbook. Four factors account for this:
      1. Returning soldiers were used to singers with big bands, which made for a built-in audience for the large number of vocalists who had graduated from big bands and were looking for solo careers.
      2. There were many songs from theater, movies, and record sessions still being written, in addition to the standard repertory from the 1920s-1950s, with many of the composers still alive and promoting their catalogs.
      3. The 45-rpm record (introduced in the 1940s) was good for single hits while the 33-rpm LP attracted more mature audiences for singers.
      4. The rise of television during the 1950s provided exposure for famous wartime singers on variety shows, which were a staple of early television.
    2. Singers from this period grew up with swing and maintained this connection.
    3. Rosemary Clooney's novelty hit of the early 1950s "Come On-a My House," allowed her to record LPs with Ellington and other jazz musicians for much of the rest of her career.
    4. Nat King Cole was a good jazz pianist who became a very successful pop singer. He had a hit with a novelty song in 1943 but still was known as a pianist who occasionally sang R&B.
    5. After the war he became wildly popular with songs like "Mona Lisa." He was so popular he was the first African American to be offered his own TV show. It was canceled due to lack of advertising support.
    6. Frank Sinatra (1915-1998)
      1. Respected by jazz musicians old and new, Sinatra started out imitating his idol, Bing Crosby, but developed his own style by listening to singers like Billy Holiday.
      2. Sinatra believed that phrasing should emphasize the lyric. Between 1939 and 1942 he became popular as a big-band singer under Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. His female fans screamed and fainted at his live performances.
      3. In the 1940s, he earned his own radio show and started a film career. After the war, his career fell apart due to resentment on the part of returning servicemen for Sinatra's lack of contribution to the war effort and the popularity of newer singers such as Clooney and Cole. His personal life started to fall apart.
      4. Soon afterward, Sinatra reinvented himself as a hipster, restarted his film career with awardwinning performances, and started to focus more on up-tempo swing numbers accompanied by large ensembles arranged by well-respected arrangers such as Nelson Riddle.
      5. He did not improvise but rather phrased well and embellished melodies, all with a rhythmic "businessman's bounce." Ellington admired him for making songs believable.
      6. Sinatra was one of the first artists to think of an LP as a nontheatrical opera wherein all the songs reflect a theme—otherwise known as a "concept album." He was also known as the anti-Presley during Elvis Presley's rise to fame on 45s.
    7. Sarah Vaughan (1924-1990)
      1. Sinatra comes from Tin Pan Alley and swing; Vaughan comes from the heart of jazz: bop harmonies, rhythms, and improvisation. She made jazz accessible like no other, although many tried.
      2. Vaughan was born in Newark, New Jersey, and learned piano from her church organist mother. She won the Apollo Theater's Amateur Night when she was eighteen. Earl Hines heard her there and offered her a job in his band, sharing piano and singing duties with Billy Eckstine.
      3. In 1946 she headlined New York's Café Society. She was signed by Columbia Records in 1949.
      4. Vaughan explored harmony through her piano and applied this to her singing. She had a range exceeding four octaves and precise intonation, a feeling for the blues from her gospel roots, and an excellent sense swing, all of which allowed her to explore a tune like an instrumentalist.
      5. Columbia wanted her to sing with a less creative touch, but even accompanied by a large orchestra, she still played with the melody.
      6. By the time she signed with Mercury Records in 1954, she was recording both pop hits like "Make Yourself Comfortable" and jazz classics with Clifford Brown.
      7. As with Fitzgerald, who was singing American songbook classics and scatting, Vaughn also fused pop and jazz. She was happy to work in both fields as long as the music was good.
      8. During the 1960s, a new crop of recording executives tried to rein in her improvisatory approach to singing. By 1967, she had had enough and quit singing for four years, after which she reinvented herself by working Fusion I: R&B, Singers, and Latin Jazz | 87 major concert venues with just a trio and occasionally a big band with the occasional guest star. Only then did she return to recording, this time on her own terms.
  3. Latin Jazz: Cuba
    1. Dance beats from the Caribbean have had a long relationship with jazz (Morton's "Spanish tinge"). Postwar jazz was especially influenced by Cuban music (salsa) and Brazilian music (bossa nova).
    2. Cuban influence includes the rumba of the 1930s, the mambo of the 1940s, and the cha-cha-cha of the 1950s. Cuban bands in the States offered little jazz but considerable rhythmic vitality and great showmanship—a taste of what American tourists found in Cuba.
    3. Violinist and Latin music's most famous bandleader, Xavier Cugat, grew up in Cuba. His fame peaked in 1940 with hit records and frequent appearances in movies. He did not play jazz as such but furthered the vogue for Latin music.
    4. The United States' Good Neighbor Policy with Latin America helped promote his success during the 1930s.
      1. Walt Disney contributed to the Good Neighbor Policy by producing movies that introduced several South American songs recorded by artists such as Crosby and Parker. Latin leading men started to appear in films, but perhaps the most prominent Latin artist featured in Hollywood films was singer Carmen Miranda, who popularized samba in her own country (Brazil).
    5. Mario Bauzá (1911-1993), Machito (1908-1984), and the Dizzy Factor
      1. Jazz and Cuban music started to develop a close relationship during the war, a relationship that became visible only well afterward in the late 1940s. The emergence of Cubop, an Afro-Cuban style of jazz, was instigated by big-band trumpeter and arranger Mario Bauzá who, in 1939, started an Afro-Cuban band with bandleader, singer, and maracas player Machito (Frank Grillo).
      2. Machito was raised in Havana and moved to the States in 1937, where he worked in a number of Latin bands before joining Bauzá in 1939. This band folded for lack of work. Bauzá joined Cab Calloway, and Machito joined Cugat before forming his own Afro- Cuban band in 1940 and hiring Bauzá as director, who, in turn, hired young arrangers to achieve the jazz sound.
      3. After Machito returned from the army, the ensemble created significant interest among modern jazz musicians—Stan Kenton even recorded a tribute to Machito.
      4. The basis of Cuban music and Cubop is the clave, an underlying rhythmic ostinato, quite different from the backbeat-accented forward momentum of swing rhythm. The rhythm section also has more percussion instruments including timbales, congas, bongos, maracas, claves, and guiros.
      5. The real breakthrough for Latin jazz came when Dizzy Gillespie started working toward a Latin jazz fusion with his 1946 big band, for which he hired conga player Chano Pozo and bongo player Chiquitico for a concert at Carnegie Hall. Dizzy learned about this music from Bauzá when they were both in the Calloway band.
      6. Although Gillespie had already shown interest in Afro rhythms (e.g., "A Night in Tunisia"), he knew little about Cuban music until Bauzá started teaching him. He gave Pozo free rein in the band from 1947 to the end of 1948. During this time the band recorded "Cubana Be," "Cubana Bop" (an early example of modal jazz arranged by George Russell), and the highly influential "Manteca."
    6. "Manteca"
      1. Manteca means "lard" or "grease" and is also slang for marijuana. The piece was Pozo's idea and starts with interlocking congas and bass ostinato much different from the usual walking bass. The piece is built up from staggered riff entries.
      2. Pozo originally wanted to keep the music completely Afro-Cuban by stretching out the groove, but Gillespie added some jazz content through a written, harmonically hip bridge underpinned by a walking-bass line.
    7. Salsa
      1. Latin influence on jazz was widespread by 1950. Parker recorded with Machito, Bud Powell used clave in "Un Poco Loco," and Kenton incorporated Latin instruments into his rhythm section. But even after it receded in the mid-1950s, Machito continued playing and making records, some with jazz solos and some without. Cuban style became part of a broader Latin scene that included the Brazilian bossa nova, the Argentine tango, and the Mexican mariachi.
      2. Afro-Cuban musics fused with other Caribbean areas such as Puerto Rico which, in New York at least, resulted in salsa, a major urban music by the 1970s.
      3. The presence of jazz in salsa is a given. Many key salsa performers, such as Tito Puente, were born in New York, and developed strong ties to both Machito and Dizzy. Ray Baretto, for example, played jazz as much as salsa and was the first to play jazz congas.
      4. At the same time jazz musicians hired Latin rhythm sections. Cal Tjader was an especially successful vibraphonist who worked with percussionist Mongo Santamaria.
    8. Bossa Nova: Jobim, Gilberto, and Getz
      1. Samba originated in nineteenth-century Brazil as an amalgam of march rhythms and African dance music. It does not use clave but rather is characterized by two beats per measure with an accent on the second beat. There were a number of samba hits during the 1930s and 1940s, which is also when Carmen Miranda was a hit in Hollywood.
      2. In 1958 Brazilian singer and actress Elizete Cardoso released an album based on the songwriting of Antôntio Carlos Jobim. Cardoso is accompanied on several tracks by guitarist João Gilberto. The music was known as bossa nova ("new flair").
      3. Jobim insisted that bossa nova was not just another form of samba but a radical break from it. Like bop, bossa nova broke with the past in terms of melodic and lyrical sophistication. It represented a young, new attitude.
      4. Before 1960, bossa nova was mainly a Brazilian phenomenon, but with the Cuban revolution (1959) cutting Cuba off from the mainland and the discovery of Jobim by touring jazz musicians, bossa nova became known in the United States.
      5. Dizzy Gillespie was the first off the mark in 1961 when he added some bossa standards to his repertoire, recording them shortly thereafter.
      6. Additionally, acoustic guitarist Charlie Byrd recruited "Four Brothers" reed player Stan Getz to record. Getz ranked with Gordon, Rollins, and Coltrane as one of the most influential tenor saxophonists of the 1950s.
      7. The Getz-Byrd collaboration interested American labels in bossa nova. They released the album Jazz Samba in 1962, and an edited version of Desifinado featuring Getz from that album became a number one hit. Other jazzers jumped on the bandwagon.
      8. viii)In 1963 Getz recorded Getz/Gilberto with the Brazilian originators of the music. Gilberto's wife, Astrud, who had never sung professionally before, sang the worldwide hit "Girl From Ipanema" at Getz's request.
      9. The year 2008 saw the fiftieth anniversary of bossa nova. Various performances and scholarly activities took place in Brazil to celebrate it. Modern bossa nova mixes with rock and classical music.
  4. Mass Media Jazz
    1. As jazz grew farther from the mainstream public, it began to embody four basic cultural clichés. Jazz on 1950s and early 1960s television tells the story.
      1. One: Jazzers as urban slow-witted outsiders and jive-talking beatniks with "crazy" head and facial hair, singing aimless scat. They were treated with comical disdain.
      2. Two: The sound of jazz, especially the saxophone, associated with easy women or a bad part of town. Many detective shows featured jazz scores, some by jazz musicians such as Count Basie and Benny Carter.
      3. Three: Jazz as adult, sexy, super-hip, and not for squares. Hip comedians such as Lenny Bruce and writers such as Norman Mailer pondered jazz. This positive but tiresome image disappeared in the 1960s as rock grew up.
      4. Four: Jazz musicians on variety, talk, educational shows, and specials on jazz (e.g., The Sound of Jazz). Although jazz was seen on television at this time more often than in the forty years since, the representation of jazz was circumscribed by public taste (singers were favored and modernists were rarely invited) and ideas about race (African American appearances were limited).

Chapter 16 Jukebox