Chapter Overview

As jazz becomes an alternative art music, musicians and fans react in different ways: through modernist interpretation (increasing its progressive experimentation), through fusion (trying to reclaim a lost mass audience), and through ethnicity (as jazz becomes more "white," it is emphatically redefined as "black"). Cool jazz is one label that groups a variety of musicians from the late 1940s through the 1950s who share a reaction against the "hot" qualities of bebop, preferring relaxation and understatement and a general commitment to experimentalism. While covering cool jazz, this chapter discusses Lennie Tristano, the Miles Davis Nonet ("Birth of the Cool"), Gil Evans, Gerry Mulligan, Stan Getz, Dave Brubeck, and the Modern Jazz Quartet, as well as the convergence with classical music under the rubric Third Stream. "Hard bop," one of the most unsatisfying journalistic labels to remain in common usage, encompasses straight-ahead bebop on labels such as Blue Note and Prestige, the organ trios common in black neighborhoods in the 1950s and 1960s, and the jazz-R&B fusion commonly known as "soul jazz," all of which situate jazz as a new form of blackness. Here the major musicians Clifford Brown, Max Roach, Wes Montgomery, and Sonny Rollins are examined.

Chapter 12 Jukebox