This chapter introduces the student to some of the elements
of music, with an emphasis on the terms and concepts that
prove useful for describing and understanding jazz performances.
Topics cover timbre (and the variations on timbre that
produce individuality in jazz); instruments used in jazz ensembles;
rhythm (free and pulse); meter (including downbeat
and measure); polyrhythm (the distinctive, African-based approach
to rhythm that produces "swing"); scales/modes, blues
intonation; harmony and tonality; and texture (homophony,
monophony, and polyphony).