1. Explain each of the following in relation to Marx's analysis of capitalist economy: a) the labor theory of value, b) the proletariat, c) the petty bourgeoisie.
  2. How did Marx distinguish between socialism and communism in his theory of revolution?
  3. In Marx's interpretation of history, what role was played by class struggle and by the dialectical view of conflict and resolution?
  4. During what period was the International headed by Marx most successful? Why did it eventually expire?
  5. How did Marx view the bloody conflict of 1871 in Paris? Did the facts substantiate his interpretation of the nature and objectives of the Commune?
  6. Explain the appeal in the nineteenth century of Marx's long and complex work Capital.
  7. Why did socialism gain ground more slowly on Europe's periphery than in its center?
  8. What were the main differences between the "purist" and the "revisionist" socialists? Which group made more headway during the late nineteenth century?
  9. Distinguish between anarchism and syndicalism. What ideas or objectives did each of them share with socialism?
  10. Explain Darwin's idea of natural selection.
  11. Compare Lamarck's and Darwin's theories of evolution.
  12. How did Weismann and De Vries modify the Darwinian theory?
  13. Why was the impact of Darwin's biological theory so disturbing to believers in an orderly universe?
  14. What adaptation did the Social Darwinists make of Darwin's theory?
  15. Explain Freud's theory of human motivation and behavior. Why were dreams important to Freudian psychoanalysis?
  16. Although Nietzsche was a romantic poet more than a scientist, he employed a theory of evolution in his philosophy. Explain this statement.
  17. How did both behaviorism and psychoanalysis encourage a deterministic outlook?
  18. In what different ways did leading religious groups and individuals react to new scientific and philosophical challenges?
  19. How did the scope and character of the reading public change in the later nineteenth century? How did writers and publishers react to this change?
  20. What change in the artist's conception of the nature of art and of his own relationship to society had become evident by the end of the nineteenth century? What does it mean to say that "artists and public were ceasing to speak the same language"?
  21. What different aspects of realism are seen in the works of Zola, Dickens, and Hardy, respectively?
  22. Describe the development of painting from realism to cubism.
  1. Investigate any of the following:
      a. Leo Tolstoy's social ideals
      b. Georges Sorel and syndicalism
      c. The activities and influence of the English Fabian socialists
      d. The Paris Commune of 1871
      e. The vicissitudes of the International Workingmen's Association
      f. Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle
      g. Pavlov and his experiments
      h. The Impressionists
  2. In what ways was Marx a product of the nineteenth century, and what ways was he a rebel against it?
  3. Explore the relationship between the decline of romanticism and such nineteenth-century phenomena as scientific discovery, industrial expansion, and middle-class ascendancy.
  4. Read Crime and Punishment or The Brothers Karamazov by Dostoevsky. How did Dostoevsky use pain and anguish to explore the human condition? What would make his novels particularly appealing to the middle class and workers?
  5. Read any of the following literary works to discover what light it throws on nineteenth-century moods and anxieties: Tennyson, In Memoriam; The Education of Henry Adams; Matthew Arnold, Culture and Anarchy.
  6. What did Marx and Engels mean by the conflict between modern "productive forces" and "modern property relations"? Why did they believe that bourgeois society had simplified class antagonism?


W.W. Norton
REVIEW: World Civilizations
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