Below are a number of items with which you should be familiar after reading Chapter 6. Enter your answer in the blank. Note: You must enter NUMERIC VALUES, then click your mouse anywhere outside of the input box to check your answer.
1. Confucius’ concept of the ideal state was based upon the assumption that:
1. all men are equal
2. church and state should be separate
3. the purpose of government is to promote the welfare of the people
4. that government is best which governs least

2. Confucius believed that the state should be governed by an aristocracy determined by :
1. wealth
2. talent
3. birth
4. hard work

3. In spite of the differences in emphasis, members of the Confucian school of thought agreed that:
1. people can become better if properly guided
2. human nature is hopelessly corrupt
3. politics and ethics are entirely separate
4. inner strength was more important than proper ritual
4. Laozi is noted for affirming:
1. the virtue of unrestrained individualism
2. the superiority of nature over man-made institutions
3. that all governments are inherently evil
4. the importance of the ruler keeping a close watch on his subjects

5. The “Legalist” school of thought:
1. provided a basis for the rule of law in later Chinese history
2. emphasized the virtue of the common people
3. argued for a smaller, but more efficient, government than the Daoists
4. believed the best way to motivate people was through reward and punishment

3. The concept of yin and yang would tend to promote a view of the universe characterized by:
1. constancy and solidity
2. change and fluidity
Explain the significance of the following:
1. monsoon 2. Analects
3. mandate of heaven
4. Middle Kingdom
5. oracle bones
6. Warring States
7. Confucius
8. Yangshao painted pottery culture
9. Xia dynasty

Identify the following individuals.
1. His major contributions to Confucian thought were the ideas that all humans were basically good and therefore improvable through education, and that a tyrannical ruler had no right to remain in power.
2. This person, whose historical existence is open to question, gave rise to a philosophy that advocated as little human interference with nature as possible, and promoted minimal government.
3. The brother of the leader who defeated the Shang dynasty, he seemed to eschew personal power, instead selflessly serving the state and becoming a model for later Confucians.
4. A great teacher concerned with the problem of creating a well-ordered society, he urged that ethics and moral principles be enshrined as the guiding principles in government.
5. This philosopher argued that a life of private cultivation of inner strength was more desirable than government service.
6. Unlike many Confucian thinkers, this man held a pessimistic view of human nature and believed that laws were necessary to control human impulses.


W.W. Norton
REVIEW: World Civilizations
Page created by Thomas Pearcy, Ph.D and Mary Dickson.
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Last revised June 30, 1997
Last revised January 30, 1997
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