Research / Documentation
We do research all the time, for many different reasons. We search the Web for information about a new computer, ask friends about the best place to get coffee, try on several pairs of jeans before deciding which ones to buy. You have no doubt done your share of library research before now, and you probably visited a number of schools' Web sites before deciding which college you wanted to attend. Research, in other words, is something you do every day. The following chapters offer advice on the kind of research you'll need to do for your academic work and, in particular, for research papers and other written documents.

DOCUMENTATION
- Documentation
- Understanding Documentation Styles
- MLA Style Overview
- APA Style Overview


MLA STYLE
- MLA In-Text Documentation
- Notes
- MLA List of Works Cited
- Books
- Periodicals
- Electronic Sources
- Other Kinds of Sources
- Sample Research Paper, MLA Style


APA STYLE
- APA In-Text Documentation
- Notes
- APA Reference List
- Books
- Periodicals
- Electronic Sources
- Other Kinds of Sources
- Sample Research Paper, APA Style




Documentation

In everyday life, we are generally aware of our sources: "I read it in the Post." "Amber told me it's your birthday." "If you don't believe me, ask Mom." Saying how we know what we know and where we got our information is part of establishing our credibility and persuading others to take what we say seriously.

The goal of a research project is to study a topic, combining what we learn from sources with our own thinking and then composing a written text. When we write up the results of a research project, we cite the sources we use, usually by quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing, and we acknowledge those sources, telling readers where the ideas came from. The information we give about sources is called documentation, and we provide it not only to establish our credibility as researchers and writers but also so that our readers, if they wish to, can find the sources themselves.



UNDERSTANDING DOCUMENTATION STYLES

The Norton Field Guide covers the documentation styles of the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA). MLA style is used chiefly in the humanities; APA is used mainly in the social sciences. Both are two-part systems, consisting of (1) brief in-text parenthetical documentation for quotations, paraphrases, or summaries and (2) more-detailed documentation in a list of sources at the end of the text. MLA and APA require that the end-of-text documentation provide the following basic information about each source you cite:

  • author, editor, or organization providing the information
  • title of work
  • place of publication
  • name of organization or company that published it
  • date when it was published
  • for online sources, date when you accessed the source
MLA and APA are by no means the only documentation styles. Many other publishers and organizations have their own style, among them the University of Chicago Press and the Council of Science Editors. We focus on MLA and APA here because those are styles that college students are often required to use. On the following page are examples of how the two parts—the brief parenthetical documentation in your text and the more-detailed information at the end—correspond. The top of the page shows the two parts according to the MLA system; the bottom, the two parts according to the APA system.

As the examples show, when you cite a work in your text, you can name the author either in a signal phrase or in parentheses. If you name the author in a signal phrase, give the page number(s) in parentheses; when the author's name is not given in a signal phrase, include it in parentheses.

The examples here and throughout this book are color-coded to help you see the crucial parts of each citation: tan for author and editor, yellow for title, and green for publication information: city of publication, name of publisher, year of publication, page number(s), and so on. Comparing the MLA and APA styles of listing works cited or references reveals some differences: MLA includes an author's first name while APA gives only the initial; MLA puts the date at the end while APA places it right after the author's name; MLA underlines titles of long works while APA italicizes them; MLA capitalizes most of the words in the title and subtitle while APA capitalizes only the first words of each. Overall, however, the styles provide similar information: each gives author, title, and publication data.



MLA Style

IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION
As Lester Faigley puts it, "The world has become a bazaar from which to
shop for an individual 'lifestyle' " (12).
As one observer suggests, "The world has become a bazaar from
which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle' " (Faigley 12).
WORKS-CITED DOCUMENTATION
Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject
     of Composition. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.


APA Style

IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION
As Faigley (1992) suggested, "The world has become a bazaar from
which to shop for an individual 'lifestyle' " (p. 12).
As one observer has noted, "The world has become a bazaar from which
to shop for an individual 'lifestyle' "(Faigley, 1992, p. 12).
REFERENCE-LIST DOCUMENTATION
Faigley, L. (1992). Fragments of rationality: Postmodernity and the
     subject of composition. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.


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MLA Style

Modern Language Association style calls for (1) brief in-text documentation and (2) complete documentation in a list of works cited at the end of your text. The models in this chapter draw on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th edition, by Joseph Gibaldi (2003). Additional information is available at www.mla.org.



A DIRECTORY TO MLA STYLE

MLA In-Text Documentation

  1. Author named in a signal phrase
  2. Author named in parentheses
  3. Two or more works by the same author
  4. Authors with the same last name
  5. After a block quotation
  6. Two or more authors
  7. Organization or government as author
  8. Author unknown
  9. Literary works
  10. Work in an anthology
  11. Sacred text
  12. Multivolume work
  13. Two or more works cited together
  14. Source quoted in another source
  15. Work without page numbers
  16. An entire work


MLA List of Works Cited

BOOKS

  1. One author
  2. Two or more works by the same author(s)
  3. Two authors
  4. Three authors
  5. Four or more authors
  6. Organization or government as author
  7. Anthology
  8. Work(s) in an anthology
  9. Author and editor
  10. No author or editor
  11. Translation
  12. Foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword
  13. Multivolume work
  14. Book in a series
  15. Sacred text
  16. Edition other than the first
  17. Republished work


PERIODICALS

  1. Article in a journal paginated by volume
  2. Article in a journal paginated by issue
  3. Article in a monthly magazine
  4. Article in a weekly magazine
  5. Article in a daily newspaper
  6. Unsigned article
  7. Editorial
  8. Letter to the editor
  9. Review


ELECTRONIC SOURCES

  1. Professional Web site
  2. Personal Web site
  3. Home page for an academic department
  4. Online book or part of a book
  5. Article in an online periodical or database
  6. Document accessed through AOL or other subscription service
  7. Email
  8. Posting to an electronic forum
  9. CD-ROM


OTHER KINDS OF SOURCES

  1. Advertisement
  2. Art on the Web
  3. Cartoon
  4. Dissertation
  5. Film, video, or DVD
  6. Interview
  7. Letter
  8. Map
  9. Musical composition
  10. Music recording
  11. Oral presentation
  12. Paper from proceedings of a conference
  13. Performance
  14. Television or radio program


MLA IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

Brief documentation in your text makes clear to your reader what you took from a source and where in the source you found the information.

In your text, you have three options for citing a source: quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. As you cite each source, you will need to decide whether or not to name the author in a signal phrase—"as Toni Morrison writes"—or in parentheses—"(Morrison 24)."

The first examples in this chapter show basic in-text citations of a work by one author. Variations on those examples follow. All of the examples are color-coded to help you see how writers using MLA style work authors and page numbers—and sometimes titles—into their texts. The examples also illustrate the MLA style of using quotation marks around titles of short works and underlining titles of long works. (Your instructor may prefer italics to underlining; find out if you're not sure.)



1. AUTHOR NAMED IN A SIGNAL PHRASE

If you mention the author in a signal phrase, put only the page number(s) in parentheses. Do not write page or p.
McCullough describes John Adams as having "the hands of a man
accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting
his own firewood" (18).
McCullough describes John Adams's hands as those of someone used to
manual labor (18).


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2. AUTHOR NAMED IN PARENTHESES

If you do not mention the author in a signal phrase, put his or her last name in parentheses along with the page number(s). Do not use punctuation between the name and the page number(s).
Adams is said to have had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning
his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood"
(McCullough 18).
One biographer describes John Adams as someone who was not a
stranger to manual labor (McCullough 18).
Whether you use a signal phrase and parentheses or parentheses only, try to put the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence or as close as possible to the material you've cited without awkwardly interrupting the sentence. Notice that in the first example above, the parenthetical reference comes after the closing quotation marks but before the period at the end of the sentence.



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3. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR

If you cite multiple works by one author, you have four choices. You can mention the author in a signal phrase and give the title and page reference in parentheses. Give the full title if it's brief; otherwise, give a short version.
Kaplan insists that understanding power in the Near East requires
"Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without
illusions" (Eastward 330).
You can mention both author and title in a signal phrase and give only the page reference in parentheses.
In Eastward to Tartary, Kaplan insists that understanding power in
the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and
do so without illusions" (330).
You can indicate author, title, and page reference only in parentheses, with a comma between author and title.
Understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who
know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Kaplan,
Eastward 330).
Or you can mention the title in a signal phrase and give the author and page reference in parentheses.
Eastward to Tartary argues that understanding power in the Near East
requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so
without illusions" (Kaplan 330).


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4. AUTHORS WITH THE SAME LAST NAME

If your works-cited list includes works by authors with the same last name, you need to give the author's first name in any signal phrase or the author's first initial in the parenthetical reference.
Edmund Wilson uses the broader term imaginative, whereas Anne Wilson
chooses the narrower adjective magical.
Imaginative applies not only to modern literature (E. Wilson) but also to
writing of all periods, whereas magical is often used in writing about
Arthurian romances (A. Wilson).


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5. AFTER A BLOCK QUOTATION

When quoting more than three lines of poetry, more than four lines of prose, or dialogue from a drama, set off the quotation from the rest of your text, indenting it one inch (or ten spaces) from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks. Place any parenthetical documentation after the final punctuation.
In Eastward to Tartary, Kaplan captures ancient and contemporary
Antioch for us:
At the height of its glory in the Roman-Byzantine age, when
it had an amphitheater, public baths, aqueducts, and
sewage pipes, half a million people lived in Antioch. Today
the population is only 125,000. With sour relations between
Turkey and Syria, and unstable politics throughout the
Middle East, Antioch is now a backwater—seedy and
tumbledown, with relatively few tourists. I found it altogether charming. (123)


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6. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS

For a work by two or three authors, name all the authors, either in a signal phrase or in the parentheses.
Carlson and Ventura's stated goal is to introduce Julio Cortázar, Marjorie
Agosín, and other Latin American writers to an audience of
English-speaking adolescents (v).
For a work with four or more authors, you have the option of mentioning all their names or just the name of the first author followed by et al., which means "and others."
One popular survey of American literature breaks the contents into sixteen
thematic groupings (Anderson, Brinnin, Leggett, Arpin, and Toth A19-24).
One popular survey of American literature breaks the contents into
sixteen thematic groupings (Anderson et al. A19-24).


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7. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

If the author is an organization, cite the organization either in a signal phrase or in parentheses. It's acceptable to shorten long names.
The U.S. government can be direct when it wants to be. For example, it
sternly warns, "If you are overpaid, we will recover any payments not
due you" (Social Security Administration 12).


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8. AUTHOR UNKNOWN

If you don't know the author of a work, as you won't with many reference books and with most newspaper editorials, use the work's title or a shortened version of the title in the parentheses.
The explanatory notes at the front of the literature encyclopedia point
out that writers known by pseudonyms are listed alphabetically under
those pseudonyms (Merriam-Webster's vii).
A powerful editorial in last week's paper asserts that healthy liver donor
Mike Hurewitz died because of "frightening" faulty postoperative care
("Every Patient's Nightmare").


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9. LITERARY WORKS

When referring to literary works that are available in many different editions, cite the page numbers from the edition you are using, followed by information that will let readers of any edition locate the text you are citing.
NOVELS
Give the page and chapter number.
In Pride and Prejudice, Mrs. Bennet shows no warmth toward Jane and
Elizabeth when they return from Netherfield (105; ch. 12).
VERSE PLAYS
Give the act, scene, and line numbers; separate them with periods.
Macbeth continues the vision theme when he addresses the Ghost with
"Thou hast no speculation in those eyes / Which thou dost glare with"
(3.3.96-97).
POEMS
Give the part and the line numbers (separated by periods). If a poem has only line numbers, use the word line(s) in the first reference.
Whitman sets up not only opposing adjectives but also opposing nouns
in "Song of Myself" when he says, "I am of old and young, of the foolish
as much as the wise, / . . . a child as well as a man" (16.330-32).
One description of the mere in Beowulf is "not a pleasant place!" (line
1372). Later, the label is "the awful place" (1378).


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10. WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY

If you're citing a work that is included in an anthology, name the author(s) of the work, not the editor of the anthology—either in a signal phrase or in parentheses.
"It is the teapots that truly shock," according to Cynthia Ozick in her
essay on teapots as metaphor (70).
In In Short: A Collection of Creative Nonfiction, readers will find both
an essay on Scottish tea (Hiestand) and a piece on teapots as metaphors
(Ozick).


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11. SACRED TEXT

When citing sacred texts such as the Bible or the Qur'an, give the title of the edition used, and in parentheses give the book, chapter, and verse (or their equivalent), separated by periods. MLA style recommends that you abbreviate the names of the books of the Bible in parenthetical references.
The wording from The New English Bible follows: "In the beginning of
creation, when God made heaven and earth, the earth was without form
and void, with darkness over the face of the abyss, and a mighty wind
that swept over the surface of the waters" (Gen. 1.1-2).


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12. MULTIVOLUME WORK

If you cite more than one volume of a multivolume work, each time you cite one of the volumes, give the volume and the page numbers in parentheses, separated by a colon.
Sandburg concludes with the following sentence about those paying last
respects to Lincoln: "All day long and through the night the unbroken
line moved, the home town having its farewell" (4: 413).
If your works-cited list includes only a single volume of a multivolume work, the only number you need to give in your parenthetical reference is the page number.



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13. TWO OR MORE WORKS CITED TOGETHER

If you're citing two or more works closely together, you will sometimes need to provide a parenthetical citation for each one.
Tanner (7) and Smith (viii) have looked at works from a cultural
perspective.
If the citation allows you to include both in the same parentheses, separate the references with a semicolon.
Critics have looked at both Pride and Prejudice and Frankenstein from
a cultural perspective (Tanner 7 Smith viii).


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14. SOURCE QUOTED IN ANOTHER SOURCE

When you are quoting text that you found quoted in another source, use the abbreviation qtd. in in the parenthetical reference.
Charlotte Brontë wrote to G. H. Lewes: "Why do you like Miss Austen so
very much? I am puzzled on that point" (qtd. in Tanner 7).


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15. WORK WITHOUT PAGE NUMBERS

For works without page numbers, give paragraph or section numbers, using the abbreviation par. or sec. If you are including the author's name in the parenthetical reference, add a comma.
Russell's dismissals from Trinity College at Cambridge and from City
College in New York City are seen as examples of the controversy that
marked the philosopher's life (Irvine, par. 2).


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16. AN ENTIRE WORK

If your text is referring to an entire work rather than a part of it, identify the author in a signal phrase or in parentheses. There's no need to include page numbers.
Kaplan considers Turkey and Central Asia explosive.
At least one observer considers Turkey and Central Asia explosive (Kaplan).


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NOTES

Sometimes you may need to give information that doesn't fit into the text itself—to thank people who helped you, provide additional details, or refer readers to other sources not cited in your text. Such information can be given in a footnote (at the bottom of the page) or an endnote (on a separate page with the heading Notes just before your works-cited list. Put a superscript number at the appropriate point in your text, signaling to readers to look for the note with the corresponding number. If you have multiple notes, number them consecutively throughout your paper.

TEXT
This essay will argue that small liberal arts colleges should not recruit
athletes and, more specifically, that giving student athletes preferential
treatment undermines the larger educational goals.1
NOTE
     1I want to thank all those who have contributed to my thinking on
this topic, especially my classmates and my teachers Marian Johnson and
Diane O'Connor.


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MLA LIST OF WORKS CITED

A works-cited list provides full bibliographic information for every source cited in your text. The list should be alphabetized by authors' last names (or sometimes by editors' or translators' names). Works that do not have an identifiable author or editor are alphabetized by title. See Dylan Borchers's sample research paper for a sample works-cited list.



Books

BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK

For most books, you'll need to provide information about the author; the title and any subtitle; and the place of publication, publisher, and date. You'll find this information on the book's title page and copyright page.
Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became
     Shakespeare. New York: Norton, 2004.


A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • TITLES: capitalize the first and last words of titles, subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle.
  • PLACE OF PUBLICATION: If more than one city is given, use only the first.
  • PUBLISHER: Use a shortened form of the publisher's name (Norton for W. W. Norton & Company, Princeton UP for Princeton University Press).
  • DATES: If more than one year is given, use the most recent one.


1. ONE AUTHOR
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of
     publication.
Miller, Susan. Assuming the Positions: Cultural Pedagogy and the Politics
     of Commonplace Writing. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1998.
When the title of a book itself contains the title of another book (or other long work), do not underline that title.
Walker, Roy. Time Is Free: A Study of Macbeth. London: Dakers, 1949.
Include the author's middle name or initials. When the title of a book contains the title of a short work, the title of the short work should be enclosed in quotation marks, and the entire title should be underlined.
Thompson, Lawrance Roger. "Fire and Ice": The Art and Thought of
     Robert Frost. New York: Holt, 1942.


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2. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR(S)

Give the author's name in the first entry, and then use three hyphens in the author slot for each of the subsequent works, listing them alphabetically by the first important word of each title.
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title That Comes First Alphabetically.
     Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
---. Title That Comes Next Alphabetically. Publication City: Publisher, Year
     of publication.
Kaplan, Robert D. The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the
     Post Cold War. New York: Random, 2000.
---. Eastward to Tartary: Travels in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the
     Caucasus. New York: Random, 2000.


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3. TWO AUTHORS
First Author's Last Name, First Name, and Second Author's First and Last
     Names. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Malless, Stanley, and Jeffrey McQuain. Coined by God: Words and
     Phrases That First Appear in the English Translations of the Bible.
     New York: Norton, 2003.


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4. THREE AUTHORS
First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First and Last
     Names, and Third Author's First and Last Names. Title. Publication
     City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Sebranek, Patrick, Verne Meyer, and Dave Kemper. Writers INC: A Guide
     to Writing, Thinking, and Learning. Burlington: Write Source, 1990.


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5. FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

You may give each author's name or the name of the first author only, followed by et al., Latin for "and others."
First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First and Last
     Names, Third Author's First and Last Names, and Final Author's First
     and Last Names. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Anderson, Robert, John Malcolm Brinnin, John Leggett, Gary Q. Arpin,
     and Susan Allen Toth. Elements of Literature: Literature of the
     United States. Austin: Holt, 1993.
First Author's Last Name, First Name, et al. Title. Publication City:
     Publisher, Year of publication.
Anderson, Robert, et al. Elements of Literature: Literature of the United
     States. Austin: Holt, 1993.


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6. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

Sometimes the author is a corporation or government organization.
Organization Name. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of
     publication.
Diagram Group. The Macmillan Visual Desk Reference. New York:
     Macmillan, 1993.
National Assessment of Educational Progress. The Civics Report Card.
     Princeton: ETS, 1990.


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7. ANTHOLOGY
Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year
     of publication.
Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of Children's Verse in America. New
     York: Oxford UP, 1985.
If there is more than one editor, list the first editor last-name-first and the others first-name-first.
Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of
     Brief Creative Nonfiction. New York: Norton, 1996.


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8. WORK(S) IN AN ANTHOLOGY
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Title of Anthology.
     Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of
     publication. Pages.
Achebe, Chinua. "Uncle Ben's Choice." The Seagull Reader: Literature.
     Ed. Joseph Kelly. New York: Norton, 2005. 23-27.
To document two or more selections from one anthology, list each selection by author and title, followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. In addition, include on your works-cited list an entry for the anthology itself (see no. 7 above).
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Anthology Editor's Last
     Name. Pages.
Hiestand, Emily. "Afternoon Tea." Kitchen and Jones. 65-67.
Ozick, Cynthia. "The Shock of Teapots." Kitchen and Jones. 68-71.


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9. AUTHOR AND EDITOR

Start with the author if you've cited the text itself.
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names.
     Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Austen, Jane. Emma. Ed. Stephen M. Parrish. New York: Norton, 2000.
Start with the editor if you've cited his or her work.
Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title. By Author's First and Last
     Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Parrish, Stephen M., ed. Emma. By Jane Austen. New York: Norton, 2000.


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10. NO AUTHOR OR EDITOR
Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
2004 New York City Restaurants. New York: Zagat, 2003.


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11. TRANSLATION

Start with the author to emphasize the work itself.
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Trans. Translator's First and Last
     Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Richard Pevear and
     Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage, 1993.
Start with the translator to emphasize the translation.
Translator's Last Name, First Name, trans. Title. By Author's First and Last
     Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Pevear, Richard, and Larissa Volokhonsky, trans. Crime and Punishment.
     By Fyodor Dostoevsky. New York: Vintage, 1993.


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12. FOREWORD, INTRODUCTION, PREFACE, OR AFTERWORD
Part Author's Last Name, First Name. Name of Part. Title of Book.
     By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year
     of publication. Pages.
Tanner, Tony. Introduction. Pride and Prejudice. By Jane Austen.
     London: Penguin, 1972. 7-46.


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13. MULTIVOLUME WORK

If you cite all the volumes of a multivolume work, give the number of volumes after the title.
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Complete Work. Number of vols.
     Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. 4 vols. New York:
     Harcourt, 1939.
If you cite only one volume, give the volume number after the title.
Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. Vol. 2. New York:
     Harcourt, 1939.


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14. BOOK IN A SERIES
Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title of Book. By Author's First and
     Last Names. Series Title abbreviated. Publication City: Publisher, Year
     of publication.
Hunter, J. Paul, ed. Frankenstein. By Mary Shelley. Norton Critical Ed.
     New York: Norton, 1996.


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15. SACRED TEXT

If you have cited a specific edition of a religious text, you need to include it in your works-cited list.
Title. Editor's First and Last Names, ed. (if any) Publication City:
     Publisher, Year of publication.
The New English Bible with the Apocrypha. New York: Oxford UP, 1971.
The Torah: A Modern Commentary. W. Gunther Plaut, ed. New York:
     Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1981.


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16. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Name or number of ed. Publication
     City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed.
     New York: MLA, 2003.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr., ed. What Your Second Grader Needs to Know:
     Fundamentals of a Good Second-Grade Education. Rev. ed. New
     York: Doubleday, 1998.


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17. REPUBLISHED WORK

Give the original publication date after the title, followed by the publication information of the republished edition.
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Year of original edition.
     Publication City: Current Publisher, Year of republication.
Bierce, Ambrose. Civil War Stories. 1909. New York: Dover, 1994.


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Periodicals

BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ARTICLE

For most articles, you'll need to provide information about the author, the article title and any subtitle, the periodical title, any volume or issue number, the date, and inclusive page numbers.
Weinberger, Jerry. "Pious Princes and Red-Hot Lovers: The Politics of
     Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet." Journal of Politics 65 (2003): 370-75.


A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • AUTHORS: If there is more than one author, list the first author last-name-first and the others first-name-first.
  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.
  • DATES: Abbreviate the names of months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Journals paginated by volume or issue call only for the year (in parentheses).
  • PAGES: If an article does not fall on consecutive pages, give the first page with a plus sign (55+).


18. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY VOLUME
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal
     Volume (Year): Pages.
Bartley, William. "Imagining the Future in The Awakening." College
     English 62 (2000): 719-46.


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19. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY ISSUE
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal
     Volume. Issue (Year): Pages.
Weaver, Constance, Carol McNally, and Sharon Moerman. "To
     Grammar or Not to Grammar: That Is Not the Question!" Voices
     from the Middle 8.3 (2001): 17-33.


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20. ARTICLE IN A MONTHLY MAGAZINE
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine
     Month Year: Pages.
Fellman, Bruce. "Leading the Libraries." Yale Alumni Magazine
     Feb. 2002: 26-31.


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21. ARTICLE IN A WEEKLY MAGAZINE
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine
     Day Month Year: Pages.
Cloud, John. "Should SATs Matter?" Time 12 Mar. 2001: 62+.


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22. ARTICLE IN A DAILY NEWSPAPER
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper
     Day Month Year: Pages.
Springer, Shira. "Celtics Reserves Are Whizzes vs. Wizards." Boston Globe
     14 Mar. 2005: D4+.
If you are documenting a particular edition of a newspaper (indicated on the front page), specify the edition (late ed., natl. ed., etc.) in between the date and the section and page reference.
Margulius, David L. "Smarter Call Centers: At Your Service?" New York
     Times 14 Mar. 2002, late ed.: G1+.


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23. UNSIGNED ARTICLE
"Title of Article." Name of Publication Day Month Year: Page(s).
"Laura Bush Ponders Trip to Afghanistan." New York Times 2 Dec. 2003:
     A22.


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24. EDITORIAL
"Title." Editorial. Name of Publication Day Month Year: Page.
"Gas, Cigarettes Are Safe to Tax." Editorial. Lakeville Journal 17 Feb.
     2005: A10.


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25. LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title (if any)." Letter. Name of
     Publication Day Month Year: Page.
Festa, Roger. "Social Security: Another Phony Crisis." Letter. Lakeville
     Journal 17 Feb. 2005: A10.


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26. REVIEW
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title (if any) of Review." Rev. of Title
     of Work, by Author's First and Last Names. Title of Periodical Day
     Month Year: Pages.
Lahr, John. "Night for Day." Rev. of The Crucible, by Arthur Miller. New
     Yorker 18 Mar. 2002: 149-51.


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Electronic Sources

BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ELECTRONIC SOURCE

Not every electronic source gives you all the data that MLA would like to see in a works-cited entry. Ideally, you will be able to list the author's name, the title, any information about print publication, information about electronic publication (title of site, editor, date of first electronic publication and/or most recent revision, name of the sponsoring institution), date of access, and URL. Of those nine pieces of information, you will find seven in the following example.
Johnson, Charles W. "How Our Laws Are Made." Thomas: Legislative
     Information on the Internet 31 Jan. 2000. Lib. of Congress. 5 Apr.
     2005 <http://thomas.loc.gov/home/holam.txt>.


A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE
  • AUTHORS: If there is more than one author, list the first author last-name-first and the others first-name-first.
  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.
  • DATES: Abbreviate the names of months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Although MLA asks for the date when materials were first posted or most recently updated, you won't always be able to find that information. You'll also find that it will vary—you may find only the year, not the day and month. The date you must include is the date on which you accessed the electronic source.
  • URL: Give the address of the Web site in angle brackets. When a URL will not fit on one line, break it only after a slash (and do not add a hyphen). If a URL is very long, consider giving the URL of the site's home page or search page instead. Also keep in mind that if you are accessing an online source through a library's subscription to a database provider (such as EBSCO), you may not see the URL itself. In that case, end your documentation with a period after your access date.



27. PROFESSIONAL WEB SITE
Title of Site. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Date posted or last
     updated. Sponsoring Institution. Day Month Year of access <URL>.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Edward N. Zalta. 2003.
     Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and
     Information, Stanford U. 25 July 2004 <http://plato.stanford.edu>.


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28. PERSONAL WEB SITE
Author's Last Name, First Name. Home page. Date posted or last
     updated. Day Month Year of access <URL>.
Chomsky, Noam. Home page. 25 July 2004 <http://web.mit.edu/
     linguistics/www.chomsky.home.html>.


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29. HOME PAGE FOR AN ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT
Academic Department. Dept. home page. School. Day Month Year of
     access <URL>.
English Language and Literatures. Dept. home page. Wright State U
     College of Liberal Arts. 12 Mar. 2003 <http://www.cola.wright.edu/
     Dept/ENG/Index.htm>.


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30. ONLINE BOOK OR PART OF A BOOK
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Short Work." Title of
     Long Work. Original year of publication. Database. Date of
     electronic publication. Day Month Year of access <URL>.
Anderson, Sherwood. "The Philosopher." Winesburg, Ohio. 1919.
     Bartleby.com: Great Books Online. 1999. 7 Apr. 2002 <http://
     www.bartleby.com/156/5.html>.


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31. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE PERIODICAL OR DATABASE

If a source does not number pages or paragraphs, follow the year with a period instead of a colon. Some periodicals have dates; others have volume and issue numbers instead—volume 10, issue 3 should be listed as 10.3, followed by the year (in parentheses). See the following for examples.
FROM A PERIODICAL'S WEB SITE
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical
     Date or Volume. Issue (Year): Pages or pars. Day Month Year of
     access <URL>.
Landsburg, Steven E. "Putting All Your Potatoes in One Basket:
     The Economic Lessons of the Great Famine." Slate 13 Mar.
     2001. 15 Mar. 2001 <http://slate.msn.com/Economics/01-03-13/
     Economics.asp>.
FROM A DATABASE PROVIDER
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Date
     or Volume. Issue (Year): Pages or pars. Database. Database provider.
     Library. Day Month Year of access <URL>.
Bowman, James. "Moody Blues." American Spectator June 1999: 64-65.
     Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Paul Laurence Dunbar Lib., Wright
     State U. 15 Mar. 2005 <http://epnet.com>.


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32. DOCUMENT ACCESSED THROUGH AOL OR OTHER SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE

Note the keyword you used or the path you followed.
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Document." Title of Longer
     Work. Date of work. Service. Day Month Year of access.
     Keyword: Word.
Stewart, Garrett. "Bloomsbury." World Book Online. 2003. America
     Online. 13 Mar. 2003. Keyword: Worldbook.
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Document." Title of Longer
     Work. Date of work. Service. Day Month Year of access. Path:
     Sequence of Topics.
Hamashige, Hope. "New Pope's Election to Be Shrouded in Ritual,
     Secrecy." National Geographic News. 1 Apr. 2005. America Online.
     25 Apr. 2005. Path: Research and Learning; History; History of Pope
     Selection.


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33. EMAIL
Writer's Last Name, First Name. "Subject Line." Email to the author. Day
     Month Year of message.
Smith, William. "Teaching Grammar—Some Thoughts." Email to the
     author. 19 Nov. 2004.


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34. POSTING TO AN ELECTRONIC FORUM
Writer's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Posting." Online posting.
     Day Month Year of posting. Name of Forum. Day Month Year
     of access <URL>.
Schafer, Judith Kelleher. "Re: Manumission." Online posting. 27 Jan.
     2004. H-Net List on Slavery. 29 Jan. 2004 <http://h-net.msu.edu/
     cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=lm&list=H-Slavery>.


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35. CD-ROM
FOR A SINGLE-ISSUE CD-ROM
Title. CD-ROM. Any pertinent information about the edition, release, or
     version. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Othello. CD-ROM. Princeton: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1998.
If you are citing only part of the CD-ROM, name the part as you would a part of a book.
"Snow Leopard." Encarta Encyclopedia 1999. CD-ROM. Seattle: Microsoft,
     1998.
FOR A PERIODICAL ON A CD-ROM
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical.
     Date or Volume. Issue (Year): Page. Database. CD-ROM. Database
     provider. Month Year of CD-ROM.
Hwang, Suein L. "While Many Competitors See Sales Melt, Ben &
     Jerry's Scoops Out Solid Growth." Wall Street Journal. 25 May 1993:
     B1. ABI-INFORM. CD-ROM. Proquest. June 1993.


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Other Kinds of Sources

This section shows how to prepare works-cited entries for categories other than books, periodicals, and writing found on the Web and CD-ROMs. The categories are in alphabetical order. Two of them—art and cartoon—cover works that do not originate on the Web but make their way there. From these examples, you can figure out a documentation style for any texts that you may come across on the Web.



A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • AUTHORS: If there is more than one author, list the first author last-name-first and the others first-name-first. Do likewise if you begin an entry with performers, speakers, and so on.
  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.
  • DATES: Abbreviate the names of months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Journals paginated by volume or issue need only the year (in parentheses).


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36. ADVERTISEMENT
Product or Company. Advertisement. Title of Periodical Date or
     Volume. Issue (Year): Page.
Empire BlueCross BlueShield. Advertisement. Fortune 8 Dec. 2003: 208.


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37. ART
Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Art. Year. Institution, City.
Van Gogh, Vincent. The Potato Eaters. 1885. Van Gogh Museum,
     Amsterdam.
ART ON THE WEB
Warhol, Andy. Self-Portrait. 1979. J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
     29 Mar. 2005 <http://getty.edu/art/collections/objects/oll4421.html>.


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38. CARTOON
Artist's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Cartoon (if titled)." Cartoon. Title
     of Periodical Date or Volume. Issue (Year): Page.
Chast, Roz. "The Three Wise Men of Thanksgiving." Cartoon. New Yorker
     1 Dec. 2003: 174.
CARTOON ON THE WEB
Fairrington, Brian. Cartoon. Arizona Republic 6 Apr. 2002. 7 Apr. 2002
     <http://cagle.slate.msn.com/politicalcartoons/pccartoons/archives/
     fairrington.asp???Action=Get!>.


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39. DISSERTATION

Treat a published dissertation as you would a book, but after its title, add the abbreviation Diss., the name of the institution, and the date of the dissertation. If the dissertation is published by University Microfilms International (UMI), include the order number, as in the example below.
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Diss. Institution, Year.
     Publication City: Publisher, Year.
Goggin, Peter N. A New Literacy Map of Research and Scholarship in
     Computers and Writing. Diss. Indiana U of Pennsylvania, 2000. Ann
     Arbor: UMI, 2001. 9985587.
For unpublished dissertations, put the title in quotation marks and end with the degree-granting institution and the year.
Kim, Loel. "Students Respond to Teacher Comments: A Comparison of
     Online Written and Voice Modalities." Diss. Carnegie Mellon U, 1998.


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40. FILM, VIDEO, OR DVD
Title. Dir. Director's First and Last Names. Perf. Lead Actors' First and
     Last Names. Distributor, Year of release.
Casablanca. Dir. Michael Curtiz. Perf. Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman,
     and Claude Rains. Warner, 1942.

If it's a video or DVD, give that information before the name of the distributor.
Easter Parade. Dir. Charles Walters. Perf. Judy Garland and Fred Astaire.
     DVD. MGM, 1948.


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41. INTERVIEW
BROADCAST INTERVIEW
Subject's Last Name, First Name. Interview. Title of Program. Network.
     Station, City. Day Month Year.
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Interview. Fresh Air. NPR. WNYC, New York.
     9 Apr. 2002.
PUBLISHED INTERVIEW
Subject's Last Name, First Name. Interview. or "Title of Interview." Title
     of Periodical Date or Volume. Issue (Year): Pages.
Brzezinski, Zbigniew. "Against the Neocons." American Prospect Mar.
     2005: 26-27.
Stone, Oliver. Interview. Esquire Nov. 2004: 170.
PERSONAL INTERVIEW
Subject's Last Name, First Name. Personal interview. Day Month Year.
Berra, Yogi. Personal interview. 17 June 2001.


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42. LETTER
UNPUBLISHED LETTER
Author's Last Name, First Name. Letter to the author. Day Month Year.
Quindlen, Anna. Letter to the author. 11 Apr. 2002.
PUBLISHED LETTER
Letter Writer's Last Name, First Name. Letter to First and Last Names.
     Day Month Year of letter. Title of Book. Ed. Editor's First and
     Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Pages.
White, E. B. Letter to Carol Angell. 28 May 1970. Letters of E. B. White.
     Ed. Dorothy Lobarno Guth. New York: Harper, 1976. 600.


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43. MAP
Title of Map. Map. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication.
Toscana. Map. Milan: Touring Club Italiano, 1987.


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44. MUSICAL COMPOSITION
Composer's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Short Composition." or Title
     of Long Composition. Year of composition (optional).
Ellington, Duke. "Mood Indigo." 1931.
If you are identifying a composition by form, number, key, and opus, do not underline that information or enclose it in quotation marks.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. String quartet no. 13 in B flat, op. 130. 1825.


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45. MUSIC RECORDING
Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Long Work. Other pertinent
     details about the artists. Manufacturer, Year of release.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Missa Solemnis. Perf. Westminster Choir and
     New York Philharmonic. Cond. Leonard Bernstein. Sony, 1992.
Whether you list the composer, conductor, or performer first depends on where you want to place the emphasis. If you are citing a specific song, put it in quotation marks before the name of the recording, which should be underlined.
Brown, Greg. "Canned Goods." The Live One. Red House, 1995.


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46. ORAL PRESENTATION
Speaker's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Lecture." Sponsoring
     Institution. Site, City. Day Month Year.
Cassin, Michael. "Nature in the Raw—The Art of Landscape Painting."
     Berkshire Institute for Lifetime Learning. Clark Art Institute,
     Williamstown. 24 Mar. 2005.


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47. PAPER FROM PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Paper." Title of Conference
     Proceedings. Date, City. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names.
     Publication City: Publisher, Year. Pages.
Zolotow, Charlotte. "Passion in Publishing." A Sea of Upturned Faces:
     Proceedings of the Third Pacific Rim Conference on Children's
     Literature. 1986, Los Angeles. Ed. Winifred Ragsdale. Metuchen:
     Scarecrow P, 1989. 236-49.


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48. PERFORMANCE
Title. By Author's First and Last Names. Other appropriate details about
     the performance. Site, City. Day Month Year.
Medea. By Euripedes. Dir. Jonathan Kent. Perf. Diana Rigg. Longacre
     Theatre, New Haven. 10 Apr. 1994.


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49. TELEVISION OR RADIO PROGRAM
"Title of Episode." Title of Program. Other appropriate information
     about the writer, director, actors, etc. Network. Station, City.
     Day Month Year of broadcast.
"Stirred." The West Wing. Writ. Aaron Sorkin. Dir. Jeremy Kagan. Perf.
     Martin Sheen. NBC. WPTV, West Palm Beach. 3 Apr. 2002.


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SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER, MLA STYLE

Dylan Borchers wrote the following essay, which reports information, for a first-year writing course. It is formatted according to the guidelines of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th edition (2003). While the MLA guidelines are used widely in literature and other disciplines in the humanities, exact documentation requirements may vary from discipline to discipline and course to course. If you're unsure about what your instructor wants, ask for clarification.

DYLAN BORCHERS
Against the Odds: Harry S. Truman and the Election of 1948


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APA Style

American Psychological Association (APA) style calls for (1) brief documentation in parentheses near each in-text citation and (2) complete documentation in a list of references at the end of your text. The models in this chapter draw on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition (2001). Additional information is available at www.apastyle.org.



A DIRECTORY TO APA STYLE

APA In-Text Documentation

  1. Author named in a signal phrase
  2. Author named in parentheses
  3. Authors with the same last name
  4. After a block quotation
  5. Two authors
  6. Three or more authors
  7. Organization or government as author
  8. Author unknown
  9. Two or more citations in one parentheses
  10. Source quoted in another source
  11. Work without page numbers
  12. An entire work
  13. Personal communication


APA Reference List

BOOKS

  1. One author
  2. Two or more works by the same author
  3. Two or more authors
  4. Organization or government as author
  5. Author and editor
  6. Edited collection
  7. Work in a collection
  8. Unknown author
  9. Edition other than the first
  10. One volume of a multivolume work


PERIODICALS

  1. Article in a journal paginated by volume
  2. Article in a journal paginated by issue
  3. Article in a magazine
  4. Article in a newspaper
  5. Article by an unknown author
  6. Review


ELECTRONIC SOURCES

  1. Nonperiodical Web site
  2. Article in an online periodical or database
  3. Electronic discussion sources


OTHER KINDS OF SOURCES

  1. Film
  2. Music recording
  3. Proceedings of a conference
  4. Television program


APA IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

Brief documentation in your text makes clear to your reader precisely what you took from a source and, in the case of a quotation, precisely where (usually, on which page) in the source you found the text you are quoting.

Paraphrases and summaries are more common than quotations in APAstyle projects. The chapter on quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing covers all three kinds of citations. It also includes a list of words you can use in signal phrases to introduce quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. As you cite each source, you will need to decide whether to name the author in a signal phrase—"as McCullough (2001) wrote"—or in parentheses—"(McCullough, 2001)."

The first examples in this chapter show basic in-text documentation for a work by one author. Variations on those examples follow. All of the examples are color-coded to help you see how writers using APA style work authors and page numbers—and sometimes titles—into their texts.



1. AUTHOR NAMED IN A SIGNAL PHRASE

If you are quoting, you must give the page number(s). You are not required to give the page number(s) with a paraphrase or a summary, but APA encourages you to do so, especially if you are citing a long or complex work; most of the models in this chapter do include page numbers. Check with your instructors to find out their preferences.
AUTHOR QUOTED
Put the date in parentheses right after the author's name; put the page in parentheses as close to the quotation as possible.
McCullough (2001) described John Adams as having "the hands of a man
accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting
his own firewood" (p. 18).
John Adams had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own
trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood," according to
McCullough (2001, p. 18).
Notice that in the first example, the parenthetical reference with the page number comes after the closing quotation marks but before the period at the end of the sentence.
AUTHOR PARAPHRASED
Put the date in parentheses right after the author's name; follow the date with the page.
McCullough (2001, p. 18) described John Adams's hands as those of
someone used to manual labor.
John Adams's hands were those of a laborer, according to McCullough
(2001, p. 18).


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2. AUTHOR NAMED IN PARENTHESES

If you do not mention an author in a signal phrase, put his or her name, a comma, and the year of publication in parentheses as close as possible to the quotation, paraphrase, or summary.
AUTHOR QUOTED
Give the author, date, and page in one parentheses, or split the information between two parentheses.
Adams is said to have had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning
his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood"
(McCullough, 2001, p. 18).
One biographer (McCullough, 2001) has said John Adams had "the hands
of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and
splitting his own firewood" (p. 18).
AUTHOR PARAPHRASED OR SUMMARIZED
Give the author, date, and page in one parentheses toward the beginning or the end of the paraphrase.
One biographer (McCullough, 2001, p. 18) described John Adams as
someone who was not a stranger to manual labor.
John Adams's hands were those of a laborer (McCullough, 2001, p. 18).


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3. AUTHORS WITH THE SAME LAST NAME

If your reference list includes more than one person with the same last name, include initials in all documentation to distinguish the authors from one another.
Eclecticism is common in contemporary criticism (J. M. Smith, 1992, p. vii).
J. M. Smith (1992, p. vii) has explained that eclecticism is common in
contemporary criticism.


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4. AFTER A BLOCK QUOTATION

If a quotation runs forty or more words, set it off from the rest of your text and indent it one-half inch (or five spaces) from the left margin without quotation marks. Place the page number(s) in parentheses after the end punctuation.
Kaplan (2000) captured ancient and contemporary Antioch for us:
     At the height of its glory in the Roman-Byzantine age, when it
     had an amphitheater, public baths, aqueducts, and sewage pipes,
     half a million people lived in Antioch. Today the population is
     only 125,000. With sour relations between Turkey and Syria, and
     unstable politics throughout the Middle East, Antioch is now a
     backwater—seedy and tumbledown, with relatively few tourists.
     I found it altogether charming. (p. 123)


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5. TWO AUTHORS

Always mention both authors. Use and in a signal phrase, but use an ampersand (&) in parentheses.
Carlson and Ventura (1990, p. v) wanted to introduce Julio Cortázar,
Marjorie Agosín, and other Latin American writers to an audience of
English-speaking adolescents.
According to the Peter Principle, "In a hierarchy, every employee tends
to rise to his level of incompetence" (Peter & Hull, 1969, p. 26).


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6. THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

In the first reference to a work by three to five persons, name all contributors. In subsequent references, name the first author followed by et al. Whenever you refer to a work by six or more contributors, name only the first author, followed by et al. Use and in a signal phrase, but use an ampersand (&) in parentheses.
Faigley, George, Palchik, and Selfe (2004, p. xii) have argued that where
there used to be a concept called literacy, today's multitude of new kinds
of texts has given us literacies.
It's easier to talk about a good movie than a good book (Sebranek,
Meyer, & Kemper, 1990, p. 143).
Peilen et al. (1990, p. 75) supported their claims about corporate
corruption with startling anecdotal evidence.


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7. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

If an organization has a long name that is recognizable by its abbreviation, give the full name and the abbreviation the first time you cite the source. In subsequent citations, use only the abbreviation. If the organization does not have a familiar abbreviation, use the full name each time you refer to it.
FIRST CITATION
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2001)
SUBSEQUENT CITATIONS
(APA, 2001)


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8. AUTHOR UNKNOWN

With reference books and newspaper editorials, among other things, you may not know the author of a work. Use the complete title if it is short; if it is long, use the first few words of the title under which the work appears in the reference list.
Webster's New Biographical Dictionary (1988) identifies William James as
"American psychologist and philosopher" (p. 520).
A powerful editorial asserted that healthy liver donor Mike Hurewitz
died because of "frightening" faulty postoperative care ("Every Patient's
Nightmare," 2002).


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9. TWO OR MORE CITATIONS IN ONE PARENTHESES

If you need to cite multiple works in the same parentheses, list them in the same order that they appear in your reference list, separated by semicolons.
Many researchers have argued that what counts as "literacy" is not
necessarily learned at school (Heath, 1983; Moss, 2003).


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10. SOURCE QUOTED IN ANOTHER SOURCE

When you need to cite a source that was quoted in another source, let the reader know that you used a secondary source by adding the words as cited in.
During the meeting with the psychologist, the patient stated repeatedly
that he "didn't want to be too paranoid" (as cited in Oberfield & Yasik,
2004, p. 294).


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11. WORK WITHOUT PAGE NUMBERS

Instead of page numbers, some electronic works have paragraph numbers, which you should include if you are referring to a specific part of such a source. Use the – symbol or the abbreviation para. In sources with neither page nor paragraph numbers, refer readers to a particular part of the source if possible, perhaps indicating a heading and the paragraph under the heading.
Russell's dismissals from Trinity College at Cambridge and from City
College in New York City have been seen as examples of the controversy
that marked the philosopher's life (Irvine, 2002, para. 2).


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12. AN ENTIRE WORK

You do not need to give a page number if you are directing readers' attention to an entire work. Identify the author in a signal phrase or in parentheses, and cite the year of publication in parentheses.
Kaplan (2000) considered Turkey and Central Asia explosive.


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13. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION

Cite email, telephone conversations, interviews, personal letters, and other personal texts as personal communication, along with the person's initial(s), last name, and the date. You do not need to include such personal communications in your reference list.
The author and editors seriously considered alternative ways of
demonstrating documentation styles (F. Weinberg, personal
communication, November 14, 2003).
L. Strauss (personal communication, December 6, 2003) told about
visiting Yogi Berra when they both lived in Montclair, New Jersey.


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NOTES

APA recognizes that there are instances when writers of research papers may need to use content notes to give an explanation or information that doesn't fit into the paper proper. To signal a content note, place a superscript numeral in your text at the appropriate point. Your readers will know to look for a note beginning with the same superscript numeral on a separate page with the heading Notes, after your paper but before the reference list. If you have multiple notes, number them consecutively throughout your paper. Indent the first line of each note five spaces, and flush all subsequent lines left.

Here is an example showing text and an accompanying content note from a book called In Search of Solutions: A New Direction in Psychotherapy (2003).

TEXT WITH SUPERSCRIPT
An important part of working with teams and one-way mirrors is taking
the consultation break, as at Milan, BFTC, and MRI.1
CONTENT NOTE
     1It is crucial to note here that, while working within a team is
fun, stimulating, and revitalizing, it is not necessary for successful
outcomes. Solution-oriented therapy works equally well when
working solo.


APA REFERENCE LIST

A reference list provides full bibliographic information for every source cited in your text with the exception of personal communication. This list should be alphabetized by authors' last names (or sometimes by editors' names). Works that do not have an identifiable author or editor are alphabetized by title. See Karen Stonehill's sample research paper for a sample reference list.



Books

BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK

For most books, you'll need to provide information about the author; the date of publication; the title and any subtitle; and the place of publication and publisher. You'll find this information on the book's title page and copyright page.
Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, germs, and steel: The fates of human societies.
     New York: Norton.


A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • DATES: If more than one year is given, use the most recent one.
  • TITLES: Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns and proper adjectives in titles and subtitles.
  • PLACE OF PUBLICATION: Give city followed by state (abbreviated) or province or country (for example, Dubuque, IA). Omit state, province, or country for larger cities such as London, New York, and Tokyo. If more than one city is given, use the first.
  • PUBLISHER: Use a shortened form of the publisher's name (Little, Brown for Little, Brown and Company), but retain Association, Books, and Press (American Psychological Association, Princeton University Press).




1. ONE AUTHOR

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title. Publication City:
     Publisher.
Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of
     Internet addiction—and a winning strategy for recovery. New York:
     Wiley.


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2. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR

If the works were published in different years, list them chronologically.
Lewis, B. (1995). The Middle East: A brief history of the last 2,000 years.
     New York: Scribner.
Lewis, B. (2003). The crisis of Islam: Holy war and unholy terror. New
     York: Modern Library.
If the works were published in the same year, list them alphabetically by title, adding "a," "b," and so on to the years.
Kaplan, R. D. (2000a). The coming anarchy: Shattering the dreams of the
     post cold war. New York: Random House.
Kaplan, R. D. (2000b). Eastward to Tartary: Travels in the Balkans, the
     Middle East, and the Caucasus. New York: Random House.


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3. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS

For two to six authors, use this format.
First Author's Last Name, Initials, Next Author's Last Name, Initials, & Last
     Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title. Publication
     City: Publisher.
Malless, S., & McQuain, J. (2003). Coined by God: Words and phrases that
     first appear in the English translations of the Bible. New York: Norton.
Sebranek, P., Meyer, V., & Kemper, D. (1990). Writers INC: A guide to
     writing, thinking, and learning. Burlington, WI: Write Source.
For a work by seven or more authors, name just the first six authors. After the sixth name, add the abbreviation et al.

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4. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

Sometimes a corporation or government organization is both author and publisher. If so, use the word Author as the publisher.
Organization Name or Government Agency. (Year of publication). Title.
     Publication City: Publisher.
Catholic News Service. (2002). Stylebook on religion 2000: A reference
     guide and usage manual. Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Social Security Administration. (2003). Social Security: Retirement
     benefits. Washington, DC: Author.


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5. AUTHOR AND EDITOR
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of edited edition). Title. (Editor's
     Initials Last Name, Ed.). Publication City: Publisher. (Original work[s]
     published year[s])
Douglass, F. (1994). Autobiographies. (H. L. Gates, Jr., Ed.). New York:
     Library of America. (Original works published 1845–1893)


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6. EDITED COLLECTION
First Editor's Last Name, Initials, Next Editor's Last Name, Initials, & Final
     Editor's Last Name, Initials. (Eds.). (Year of edited edition).Title.
     Publication City: Publisher.
Raviv, A., Oppenheimer, L., & Bar-Tal, D. (Eds.). (1999). How children
     understand war and peace: A call for international peace education.
     San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


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7. WORK IN A COLLECTION
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article or
     chapter. In Initials Last Name (Ed.), Title (pp. pages). Publication
     City: Publisher.
Harris, I. M. (1999). Types of peace education. In A. Raviv, L. Oppenheimer,
     & D. Bar-Tal (Eds.), How children understand war and peace: A call for
     international peace education (pp. 46–70). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


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8. UNKNOWN AUTHOR
Title. (Year of publication). Publication City: Publisher.
Webster's new biographical dictionary. (1988). Springfield, MA: Merriam-
     Webster.
If the title page of a work lists the author as Anonymous, treat the reference list entry as if the author's name were Anonymous, and alphabetize it accordingly.

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9. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title (name or number ed.).
     Publication City: Publisher.
Diamond, R. J. (2002). Instant psychopharmacology (2nd ed.). New York:
     Norton.


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10. ONE VOLUME OF A MULTIVOLUME WORK
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of whole work: Vol. number.
     Title of volume. Publication City: Publisher.
Spiegelman, A. (1986). Maus: Vol. 1. My father bleeds history. New York:
     Random House.


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Periodicals

BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ARTICLE

For most articles, you'll need to provide information about the author; the date; the article title and any subtitle, the periodical title; and any volume or issue number and inclusive page numbers. Here is an example of an entry for an article in a journal.
Ferguson, N. (2005). Sinking globalization. Foreign Affairs, 84(2), 64–77.


A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • AUTHORS: Give each author's last name first followed by initials. When there are seven or more authors, name the first six and add et al. after the sixth name.
  • DATES: For journals, give year only. For magazines and newspapers, give year followed by a comma and then month or month and day. Do not abbreviate months.
  • TITLES: Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns and proper adjectives in titles and subtitles of articles. Capitalize the first and last words and all principal words of periodical titles. Do not capitalize a, an, the, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin the title of the periodical.
  • VOLUME AND ISSUE: For journals and magazines, give volume or volume and issue, as explained in more detail below. For newspapers, do not give volume or issue.
  • PAGES: For a journal or magazine article, do not use p. or pp. even though you do use that designation for a newspaper article. If an article does not fall on consecutive pages, give all the page numbers (for example, 45, 75–77 for a journal or magazine; pp. C1, C3, C5–C7 for a newspaper).


11. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY VOLUME
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal,
     volume, pages.
Yaffe, K., Fox, P., Newcomer, R., Sands, L., Lindquist, K., Dane, K., et al.
     (2002). Patient and caregiver characteristics and nursing home
     placement in patients with dementia. Journal of American Medical
     Association, 287, 2090–2097.


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12. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY ISSUE
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal,
     volume(issue), pages.
Weaver, C., McNally, C., & Moerman, S. (2001). To grammar or not to
     grammar: That is not the question! Voices from the Middle, 8(3),
     17–33.


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13. ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE

If a magazine is published weekly, include the day and the month. If there is a volume number, include it after the magazine title.
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of
     Magazine, volume, page(s).
Wagner, R., & Schiermeier, Q. (2002, April 18). Conservationists under fire
     in the Philippines. Nature, 416, 669.
If a magazine is published monthly, include the month(s) only.
Webster, D. (2002, May). Drawn from prehistory. Smithsonian, 33,
     100–107.


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14. ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER

If page numbers are consecutive, separate them with a dash. If not, separate them with a comma.
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of
     Newspaper, p(p). page(s).
Schneider, G. (2005, March 13). Fashion sense on wheels. The Washington
     Post, pp. F1, F6.


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15. ARTICLE BY AN UNKNOWN AUTHOR

List an article whose author is unknown by the title of the article.
IN A MAGAZINE
Title of article. (Year, Month Day). Title of Magazine, volume, page(s).
Hot property: From carriage house to family compound. (2004,
     December). Berkshire Living, 1, 99.
IN A NEWSPAPER
Title of article. (Year, Month Day). Title of Newspaper, p(p). page(s).
Accept terror threat, Homeland chief says. (2005, March 15). The
     Cincinnati Enquirer, p. A5.


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16. REVIEW
IN A JOURNAL
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of review [Review of Title of
     Work]. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page(s).
Geller, J. L. (2005). The cock and bull of Augusten Burroughs [Review
     of the books Running with scissors, Dry: A memoir, and Magical
     thinking]. Psychiatric Services, 56, 364–365.
IN A MAGAZINE
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of review [Review
     of Title of Work]. Title of Magazine, volume, page(s).
Brandt, A. (2003, October). Animal planet [Review of the book
     Intelligence of apes and other rational beings]. National
     Geographic Adventure
, 5, 47.
IN A NEWSPAPER
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of review [Review
     of Title of Work]. Title of Newspaper, p(p). page(s).
Morris, C. A. (2005, March 24). Untangling the threads of the Enron
     fraud [Review of the book Conspiracy of fools: A true story]. The
     New York Times, p. B9.
If the review does not have a title, include just the bracketed information about the work being reviewed.
Jarratt, S. C. (2000). [Review of the book Lend me your ear:
     Rhetorical constructions of deafness]. College Composition
     and Communication
, 52, 300–302.


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Electronic Sources

BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ELECTRONIC SOURCE

Not every electronic source gives you all the data that APA would like to see in a reference entry. Ideally, you will be able to list author's or editor's name, date of first electronic publication or most recent revision, title of document, information about print publication if any, information about electronic publication (title of site, date of your access of the site or retrieval of the document, name of the sponsoring institution), and URL (address of document or site). Of those eight pieces of information, you will find seven in the following example.
Johnson, C. W. (2000). How our laws are made. In Thomas: Legislative
     information on the Internet. Retrieved March 5, 2005, from
     the Library of Congress Web site: http://thomas.loc.gov/home/
     holam.txt


A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • AUTHORS: List all authors last-name-first and initials. When there's more than one author, use an ampersand (&). When there are seven or more authors, name the first six and add et al. after the sixth name.
  • TITLES: For Web sites and electronic documents, articles, or books, capitalize only the first word of titles and subtitles, proper nouns, and proper adjectives; for titles of periodicals, capitalize the first and last words and all principal words of the periodical title, but do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle.
  • DATES: After the author, give the year of the document's original publication on the Web or of its most recent revision. If neither of those years is clear, use n.d. to mean "no date"; the date you must include comes toward the end of the entry—month (not abbreviated), day, and year that you retrieved the document.
  • URL: If you do not identify the sponsoring institution ("the Library of Congress Web site" in the example above), you do not need a colon before the URL. Don't include any punctuation at the end of the URL.


17. NONPERIODICAL WEB SITE
COMPLETE SITE
Author's or Editor's Last Name, Initials. (Ed. if appropriate). (Year). Title
     of site. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
Ockerbloom, J. M. (Ed.). (2005). The online books page. Retrieved March
     28, 2005, from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/books
If you cannot find an author's or editor's name, use the name of the organization that created the Web site. Alternatively, begin with the title of the site, placing it before the year, as in the following example. For the year give the most recent update. The URL should lead to the site's home page.
Mental help net. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2005, from http://
     mentalhelp.net
PART OF SITE
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of page or article. In Title of
     site. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
Tucker-Ladd, C. E. (2000). Happiness, depression and self-concept.
     In Psychological self-help. Retrieved March 28, 2005, from
     http://mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap6/
LARGE AND COMPLEX SITE
Introduce the URL by naming the host organization and the relevant collection, department, or institute within the organization.
Author's or Editor's Last Name, Initials. (Ed. if appropriate). (Year).
     Title of site. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Host Organization
     Web site: URL
Salda, M. N. (Ed.). (1995). The little red riding hood project. Retrieved
     March 12, 2003, from University of Southern Mississippi,
     De Grummond Children's Literature Research Collection Web site:
     http://www.usm.edu/english/fairytales/lrrh/lrrhhome.htm


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18. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE PERIODICAL OR DATABASE
AN ONLINE ARTICLE WITH NO PRINT VERSION
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of
     Periodical. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
Landsburg, S. E. (2001, March 13). Putting all your potatoes in one
     basket: The economic lessons of the Great Famine. Slate. Retrieved
     March 5, 2005, from http://slate.msn.com/id/102180
AN ARTICLE IN PRINT AND ONLINE
If an article appears online in the same format and with the same content as its print version, simply add [Electronic version]; you do not need to give the URL. See below for an example.
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article [Electronic
     version]. Title of Newspaper, p(p). page(s).
Dowd, M. (2002, April 7). Sacred cruelties [Electronic version]. The New
     York Times, p. A30.
Give the retrieval date and the URL if the online version of a periodical article differs from the print version.
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of
     Newspaper, p. page. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
Dowd, M. (2002, April 7). Sacred cruelties. The New York Times, p. A30.
     Retrieved April 8, 2002, from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/07/
     opinion/07DOWD.html
AN ONLINE ARTICLE ACCESSED THROUGH A DATABASE
Follow the format for a journal (as below), magazine, newspaper, or other source, but instead of giving the URL, end your retrieval statement with the name of the database.
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal,
     volume(issue). Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Name of database.
White, D. E. (1999). The "Joineriana": Anna Barbauld, the Aikin
     family circle, and the dissenting public sphere. Eighteenth-Century
     Studies
, 32(4). Retrieved March 3, 2002, from Project Muse
     database.


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19. ELECTRONIC DISCUSSION SOURCES

List online postings only if they are archived and can be retrieved.
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Subject line of message
     [Msg number, if any]. Message posted to Name of Organization
     electronic mailing list, archived at URL
Baker, J. (2005, February 15). Huffing and puffing [Msg 89].
     Message posted to the American Dialect Society electronic
     mailing list, archived at http://listserv.linguistlist.org/archives/
     ads-1.html
Do not include email or other nonarchived discussions in your list of references. Simply cite the sender's name in your text. See no. 13 above for guidelines on identifying such sources in your text.



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Other Kinds of Sources

20. FILM
Last Name, Initials (Producer), & Last Name, Initials (Director). (Year). Title
     [Motion picture]. Country: Studio.
Wallis, H. B. (Producer), & Curtiz, M. (Director). (1942). Casablanca
     [Motion picture]. United States: Warner.


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21. MUSIC RECORDING
Composer's Last Name, Initials. (Year of copyright). Title of song. On Title
     of album [Medium]. City: Label.
Veloso, C. (1997). Na baixado sapateiro. On Livros [CD]. Los Angeles:
     Nonesuch.
If the music is performed by someone other than the composer, put that information in brackets following the title. When the recording date is different from the copyright date, put it in parentheses after the label.
Cahn, S., & Van Heusen, J. (1960). The last dance [Recorded by F. Sinatra].
     On Sinatra reprise: The very good years [CD]. Burbank, CA: Reprise
     Records (1991).


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22. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE
Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of paper. In
     Proceedings Title (pp. pages). Publication City: Publisher.
Heath, S. B. (1997). Talking work: Language among teens. In Symposium
     about Language and Society–Austin (pp. 27–45). Austin: Department
     of Linguistics at the University of Texas.


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23. TELEVISION PROGRAM
Last Name, Initials (Writer), & Last Name, Initials (Director). (Year). Title
     of episode [Descriptive label]. In Initials Last Name (Producer), Series
     title. City: Network.
Sorkin, A. (Writer), & Kagan, J. (Director). (2002). Stirred [Television series
     episode]. In A. Sorkin (Executive Producer), The West Wing. New
     York: NBC.


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SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER, APA STYLE

Karen Stonehill wrote the following paper for a first-year writing course. It is formatted according to the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition (2001). While APA guidelines are used widely in linguistics and the social sciences, exact requirements may vary from discipline to discipline and course to course. If you're unsure about what your instructor wants, ask for clarification.

KAREN STONEHILL
It's in Our Genes: The Biological Basis of Human Mating


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