Europe, North Africa, Arabia, Asia Minor & Western Central Asia ca. 750–1200

The spread of Christianity and of Islam into various parts of the world in and around the Mediterranean during the first millennium had an enormous impact. This map depicts the extent of various Christian (the Byzantine) and Islamic empires (the Shiite and Sunni empires). These empires traded territory in ongoing military campaigns. The Christian Byzantine Empire suffered a major defeat by Islamic armies at the battle of Yarmuk in 636, for example. This gave Islam control of most of what is now southern Turkey. But Arab fleets were not always successful in their military efforts (1c).