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The Nineteenth Century: Realism and Symbolism

Timeline

TEXTS   CONTEXTS

1835
Thomas Babington Macaulay, [Minute on Indian Education, February 2, 1835]

 

1842
Nikolai Gogol, Dead Souls and The Overcoat

 

1848
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels,
Manifesto of the Communist Party

 

1856
Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary

 

1857
Charles Baudelaire, The Flowers of Evil

 

1859
Charles Darwin, The Origin of
Species

 

1860
Giuseppe Garibaldi, Memorandum
to the heads of Europe

1861
Serfs emancipated in Russia

 

1861–1865
Civil War in the United States

1864
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Notes from Underground

 

1866
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment • Émile Zola’s essay The Experimental Novel argues for a "naturalist" style analogous to methods in experimental science

 

1867
Karl Marx, Capital

 

1869
Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace

1869
Suez Canal completed

1870
Ernest Renan’s Life of Jesus offers a historical approach to the New Testament

 

1871
George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans),
Middlemarch • Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man

 

1874
Paul Verlaine, Songs without Words

1874
Claude Monet’s painting Impression: Rising Sun launches Impressionism as a style

 

1876
Invention of the telephone

1876
Stéphane Mallarmé, The Afternoon of a Faun

 

1882
Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay
Science
(1882–87)

 

1883
Giovanni Verga, Freedom


1884–1885
Berlin Conference agrees on procedures for European acquisition of African territory; by 1914, all Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, succumbs to European rule

1886
Arthur Rimbaud, Illuminations • Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilyich • Friedrich Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil proclaims a “life force,” a “will to power,” and a “superman” who embodies these qualities

 
 

1887
Eiffel Tower built for the 1889 Paris World’s Fair • Gottlieb Daimler’s internal combustion engine for the automobile

1889 Guy de Maupassant, Hautot and His Son

 

1890
Henrik Ibsen, Hedda GablerPoems of Emily Dickinson (1830–1886) published posthumously • Chief Machemba of the Yao refuses to accept colonial rule in his Letter to Major von Wissmann

 

1893
Émile Zola completes a twenty-volume series of naturalist novels begun in 1871, Les Rougon-Macquart

 
 

1894
X rays discovered

 

1894–1906
In the Dreyfus Affair, anti-Semitic sentiment polarizes France

1897
Mona Caird, The Emancipation of the Family • Mary Kingsley, Travels in West Africa

 

1898
Émile Zola’s Letter to Félix Faure denounces governmental corruption in the Dreyfus Case

1898
Radium discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie • Spanish-American War breaks out

1899
Anton Chekhov, The Lady with the Dog • Cecil Rhodes, Speech at Drill Hall, Cape Town, South Africa,
articulates the imperialist view of African colonialism • Olive Schreiner, An English– South African’s View of the Situation

 

1899–1900
Sol T. Plaatje, Mafeking Diary, describes the Boer siege of Mafeking from a black perspective

 

1904
Anton Chekhov’s The Cherry Orchard performed