Chapter 4: Animalia

Who We Are

4.1 The Evolutionary Origins of Animalia

4.2 Characteristics of Animals

4.3 The First Invertebrates: Sponges, Jellyfish, and Relatives

4.4 The Protostomes

4.5 The Deuterostomes—I: Echinoderms, Chordates, and Relatives

4.6 The Deuterostomes—II: Vertebrates

Clues to the Evolution of Multicellularity

Biology in the News: Canadian Scientists Wipe Away Misconceptions about Sponges

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