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Unit 1:
Ch. 1
Ch. 2
Ch. 3
Interlude A
Unit 2:
Ch. 4
Ch. 5
Ch. 6
Ch. 7
Ch. 8
Ch. 9
Interlude B
Unit 3:
Ch. 10
Ch. 11
Ch. 12
Ch. 13
Ch. 14
Ch. 15
Interlude C
Unit 4:
Ch. 16
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Ch. 19
Interlude D
Unit 5:
Ch. 20
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Ch. 23
Ch. 24
Ch. 25
Ch. 26
Ch. 27
Ch. 28
Ch. 29
Ch. 30
Interlude E
Unit 6:
Ch. 31
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Interlude F
Unit 7:
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Ch. 35
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Ch. 37
Ch. 38
Interlude G

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Brain Cells That Generate Breathing Pinpointed
Nature Neuroscience, Sept. 2001

For the first time, scientists have identified the small group of brain cells believed to originate breathing in mammals. Reported in the September issue of Nature Neuroscience, this discovery by researchers at UCLA could lead to new approaches to serious health problems, such as sleep apnea and sudden infant death syndrome.

» Read the full article

Active Reading Questions

  1. fiogf49gjkf0d
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    Humans and many other animals have complex organ systems devoted to breathing. The existence of these systems corresponds to the fundamental need to
    a) acquire oxygen for use during cellular respiration.
    b) eliminate the carbon dioxide by-product of cellular respiration.
    c) both A and B
    d) neither A nor B
  2. fiogf49gjkf0d
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    The circulatory system and the respiratory system are closely linked in humans. Within the circulatory system, varying levels of carbon dioxide are sensed in the major blood vessels. This information is sent to the brain. The brain, in turn, regulates breathing rates (though we do have conscious control as well). The research described in this article is significant because it
    a) pinpoints which cells in the brain are responsible for regulating breathing.
    b) describes how the nervous system and the respiratory system work together.
    c) offers possible mechanisms for understanding breathing disorders.
    d) All of the above.
  3. fiogf49gjkf0d
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    Scientists used a specific marker and toxin system to kill off specific neurons in the ratsí brains. What significant conclusions did the scientists draw from their experiments?
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