Chapter Learning Objectives

Demes, Reproductive Isolation, and Species

  • Describe the characteristics of a species.
  • Understand the difference between microevolution and macroevolution.

Hardy-Weinberg Law: Testing the Conditions of Genetic Equilibrium

  • Explain the Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium.
  • Solve a simple Hardy-Weinberg equation to calculate genotype frequencies.

Mutation: The Only Source of New Alleles

  • Define the different types of mutations.
  • Describe some common mutations in humans and/or animals.

Natural Selection: Advantageous Characteristics, Survival, and Reproduction

  • Compare the three patterns of natural selection and provide examples for each.
  • Explain how the case of the peppered moth illustrates natural selection.
  • Explain how the example of abnormal hemoglobin form and endemic malaria illustrates natural selection in humans.

Genetic Drift: Genetic Change Due to Chance

  • Define genetic drift and founder effect and provide real-world examples of each.

Gene Flow: Spread of Genes Across Population Boundaries

  • Explain how gene flow contributes to genetic diversity.