Chapter Learning Objectives

The Cell: Its Role in Reproducing Life and Producing Variation

  • Describe and/or draw the major parts of a cell and the function of the organelles.
  • Explain the difference between the two types of eukaryotic cells.

The DNA Molecule: The Genetic Code

  • Explain what mtDNA is and why it is important in research about both modern and ancient humans.
  • Identify the four nitrogen bases of DNA and explain how they combine.

The DNA Molecule: Replicating the Code

  • Explain how DNA reproduces itself.
  • Define the goals and accomplishments of the Human Genome Project.
  • Describe the human karyotype.

Mitosis: Production of Identical Somatic Cells

  • Describe and/or draw the process of mitosis.

Meiosis: Production of Gametes (Sex Cells)

  • Describe and/or draw the process of meiosis.
  • Define Mendel’s Law of Segregation and Law of Independent Assortment. Explain their importance to the study of genetics.

Producing Proteins: The Other Function of DNA

  • Identify the seven major types of proteins in the human body. Provide examples that illustrate their functions.
  • Describe the process of protein synthesis and the roles that DNA and RNA play.

Genes: Structural and Regulatory

  • Explain the importance of homeotic (Hox) genes and what effects a mutation in these genes could have.

Polymorphisms: Variations in Specific Genes

  • Explain the difference between phenotype and genotype.
  • Identify several outwardly visible dominant and recessive traits in humans.

The Complexity of Genetics: Polygenic Variation and Pleiotropy

  • Explain why the “one gene–one protein” model of genetics is not completely correct.