Chapter Review

Intelligence: Thing or Process?

  • Entity theorists, who believe that intelligence is an unchangeable thing (entity) that they have no control over, are less likely to learn new things by taking on challenges and are likely to attribute small failures to lack of ability. People who believe that intelligence can be changed are incrementalists; they take on challenges and attribute failure to task difficulty or failure to work hard.

Culture and Achievement

  • East Asians constitute one large group who tend to be incrementalists and who thereby gain the benefit of hard work and improved ability.

Blocking Stereotype Threat in the Classroom

  • When minority group members are persuaded that their ability is under their control, they perform at higher levels. The same is true when they are asked to think about their goals in life and how to achieve them.

Social Fears and Academic Achievement

  • Social fears can hold back minority group members from immersing themselves in the academic enterprise.

Teaching with Telenovelas

  • Entertainment-education, based on Albert Bandura’s social learning theory, can have a big impact on the likelihood that people will avoid risky behavior and pursue beneficial goals.

Statistics, Social Science Methodology, and Critical Thinking

  • Statistics and social science methodology, including social psychology, increase people’s critical thinking skills, making them more likely to spot the errors in reported scientific studies and more likely to avoid errors of judgment in their own lives.