Critical Thinking Questions

1. Discuss the evolutionary underpinnings of helping.
2. Define and discuss the ways in which diffusion of responsibility, pluralistic ignorance, and victim effects can influence helping behavior.
3. How can we distinguish helping behavior that is motivated by empathy from helping behavior that is motivated by an egoistic motive? Fully describe one study that illustrates empathy-based helping.
4. Explain the prisoner’s dilemma game, and describe at least two factors that influence whether participants cooperate or defect.
5. Explain one way in which culture influences the likelihood of cooperative behavior.

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