Chapter Outline

Nature of the Social Self

Origins of Self-Knowledge

  • Family and Other Socialization Agents
  • Situationism and the Social Self
  • Culture and the Social Self
  • Gender and the Social Self
  • Social Comparison
  • Narratives about the Social Self

Organization of Self-Knowledge

  • Self-Schemas
  • Self-Complexity Theory


  • Trait and State Self-Esteem
  • Contingencies of Self-Worth
  • Social Acceptance and Self-Esteem
  • Culture and Self-Esteem
  • High Self-Esteem: Good or Bad?

Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

  • Self-Enhancement
  • Self-Verification

Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling the Self

  • Possible Selves
  • Self-Discrepancy Theory
  • Ego Depletion
  • Automatic Self-Control Strategies


  • Protecting Your Own Face: Self-Handicapping
  • Protecting Others’ Face: On-Record versus Off-Record Communications