English-Language Sources

Appleby, David

1983 The Music of Brazil. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press (survey of art music and composers).

Avelar, Idelber

2003 "Heavy Metal Music in Post-Dictatorial Brazil: Sepultura and the Coding of Nationality in Sound." Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 12/3: pp. 329–46 (discusses the role played by the band Sepultura in the Brazilian political scene of the 1980s and 1990s).

Béhague, Gerard, ed.

1984 "Patterns of Canbomblé Music Performance: An Afro-Brazilian Religious Setting." In Performance Practice: Ethnomusicological Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (examines the repertory and rhythmic patterns of Candomblé ceremonies).

Capoeira, Nestor

2002 Capoeira: Roots of the Dance-Fight-Game. California: North Atlantic Books (history of capoeira, description of moves and toques, and interviews with capoeira masters).

Crook, Larry. Northeastern Traditions and the Heartbeat of a Modern Nation. Santa Barbara, CA: ABD-CLIO, 2005.

Fryer, Peter

2000 Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press (survey of African derived musics in Brazil).

Galinsky, Philip

2002 "Maracatu Atômico": Tradition, Modernity , and Postmodernity in the Mangue Movement of Recife, Brazil. New York: Routledge (ethnographic study of the music of the Mangue movement during the 1980s and 1990s).

Galm, Eric

2010 The Berimbau; Soul of Brazilian Music. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi (examines uses of the berimbau in several Brazilian popular musical styles and its role in the construction of a national identity).

Livingston-Isenhour, Tamara Elena, and Thomas George Caracas Garcia

2005 Choro: A Social History of a Brazilian Popular Music. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press (history of choro music and ethnography of choro performances).

Magaldi, Cristina

1999 "Adopting Imports: New Images and Alliances in Brazilian Popular Music of the 1990s." Popular Music 18/3 (1999): pp. 309–29 (discusses globalization and the dissemination of rap and funk in Brazil).

2004 Music in Imperial Rio de Janeiro: European Culture in a Tropical Milieu. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press (history of art music and opera in 19th-century Rio de Janeiro).

McCann, Bryan

2004 Hello, Hello Brazil: Popular Music in the Making of Modern Brazil. Durham & London: Duke University Press (history of samba songs in mid-20th-century Brazil).

McGowan, Chris and Ricardo Pessanha

1998 The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press (survey of popular music in Brazil).

Mohen, Frederick

2000 "In the Tropical Studio, MPB Production in Transition." Studies in Latin American Popular Culture 19: pp. 57–66 (examines the production of MPB music in Brazilian studios in the 1990s).

Mukuna, Kazadi wa

2003 Interdisciplinary Study of the Ox and the Slave (Bumba-Meu-Boi): A Satirical Music Drama in Brazil. Edwin Mellen Press (musical and sociological study of the secular folk drama).

Murphy, John

2006 Music in Brazil: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press (survey of selected styles of popular music).

Perrone, Charles

1989 Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song: MPB 1965–1985. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press (examines the lyrics of several MPB songs).

Perrone, Charles and Christopher Dunn, eds.

2001 Brazilian Popular Music and Globalization. New York and London: Routledge (essays on the topic).

Reily, Suzel Ana

1996 "Tom Jobim and the Bossa Nova Era." Popular Music 15/1: pp. 1–16 (discusses the emergence of bossa nova in Rio de Janeiro and the musicians involved in the creation of the new style).

Shaw, Lisa

1999 The Social History of the Brazilian Samba. Aldershot, England: Ashgate (history of samba during the 1930s and 1940s, focusing on the lyrics).

Shreiner, Claus

1993 Musica Brasileira: A History of Popular Music and the People of Brazil. New York: M. Boyars (survey of popular music).

Stroud, Sean

2008 The Defence of the Tradition in Brazilian Popular Music. Aldershot, England, Ashgate (examines the role of popular music in nationalist movements during the 20th century).

Ulhoa, Martha Tupinambá de

2003 "Chiclete com Banana: Us and the Other in Brazilian Popular Music." In Steve Loza, ed. Musical Cultures of Latin America; Global Effects, Past and Present. University of California, Los Angeles (examines the confluence of foreign and local elements in Brazilian popular music—MPB).

Yudice, George

1994 "The Funkification of Rio." In Andrew Ross and Tricia Rose, eds. Microphone Fiends: Music and Youth Culture. New York: Routledge, pp. 193–220 (examines the popularization of funk in Rio as a way to question established symbols of national identity).

Portuguese-Language Sources

Andrade, Mario de

2006 Ensaio sobre a música brasileira, 4th ed. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia (classic study [1st ed 1928] on the establishment of a nationalist music movement).

Araújo, Paulo Cesar de

2002 Eu não sou cachorro, não: música popular cafona e ditadura militar. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record (examines popular music during the military regime of the 1970s, specifically the overtly sentimental songs, considered distasteful and "low class" by the musical establishment).

Ariza, Adonay

2006 Eletronic samba: A música brasileira no contexto das tendências internacionais. São Paulo, SP: Annablume, Fapesp (examines the fusion of electronic with local traditional sounds in Brazilian contemporary popular).

Barcinski, André and Silvio Gomes

1999 Sepultura: toda história. São Paulo: Editora 34 (history of the heavy metal band).

Braga, Sérgio

2001 Os bois-bumbás de Parintins. Tese de Doutoramento, Universidade de São Paulo (examines the celebrations of the ox in the city of Parintins).

Calado, Carlos

1997 Tropicália: a história de uma revolução musical. São Paulo: Editora 34 (history of Tropicália).

Dapieve, Arthur

1995 BRock: o rock brasileiro dos anos 80. São Paulo, Editora 34 (history of Brazilian rock in the 1980s).

Fróes, Marcelo

2000 Jovem Guarda em ritmo de aventura. São Paulo: Editora 34 (history of the early rock movement in Brazil).

Guérios, Paulo Renato

2003 Villa-Lobos: o caminho sinuoso da predestinação. Rio de Janeiro: Editora FGV (discusses Villa-Lobos’s career in Paris and the resulting changes in his music during the 1920s and 1930s).

Mariz, Vasco

2000 História da música no Brasil, 5th ed. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Nova Fronteira (survey of art music and composers).

Moura, Roberto

1995 Tia Ciata e a pequena çfrica no Rio de Janeiro, 2nd ed. Rio de Janeiro Secretaria Municipal de Cultura (discusses the emergence of samba in early 20th-century Rio de Janeiro).

Nepomuceno, Rosa

1999 Música caipira: da roça ao rodeio. São Paulo: Editora 34 (history of música caipira and sertaneja during the 20th century, focusing on lyrics and biographies of musicians).

Neves, José Maria

1977 Villa-Lobos, o choro e os choros. São Paulo: Musicália (musical analysis of Villa-Lobos’s Choros).

Pereira, Avelino Romero

2007 Música, sociedade e política: Alberto Nepomuceno e a República musical. Rio de Janeiro: Editora UFRJ (discusses the composer’s leading role in establishing a nationalistic music school early in the 20th century).

Ramalho, Elba Braga

2000 Luiz Gonzaga: A sintese poética e musical do Sertão. São Paulo: Terceira Margem (biography and music of Luiz Gonzaga).

Sandroni, Carlos

2001 Feitiço decente: transformaç›es do samba no Rio de Janeiro, 1917–1933. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar (examines the different rhythmic patterns of several samba groups and performers).

Squeff, Enio and José Miguel Wisnik

1983 O nacional e o popular na cultura brasileira. São Paulo: Editora Brasiliense (discusses Brazilian music and nationalism in the 20th century).

Tinhorão, José Ramos

1991 Pequena história da música popular: da modinha a lambada, 6th ed. São Paulo: Art Editora (survey of popular music in Brazil).

Veloso, Caetano

1997 Verdade tropical. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras. Also available in English as Tropical Truth: A Story of Music & Revolution in Brazil (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002) (describes the Tropicália era through the author’s own experiences as a leading figure in the movement).

Vianna, Hermano

1995 O mistério de samba. Rio de Janeiro: Editora UFRJ. Also available in English as The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and Nacional Identity in Brazil (Chapel Hill & London: The University of Carolina Press, 1999) (discusses the role of samba as a tool in the construction of symbols of Brazilian national identity).


Barra, Guto and Béco Dranoff

2009 Beyond Ipanema: Brazilian Waves in Global Music (documents the influence of Tropicália, bossa nova, and other Brazilian popular musical styles in the United States; includes interviews with musicians from Brazil and the United States).

Billion, Yves and Dominique Dreyfus

2001 Brazil, The Tropicalist Revolution. Zaradoc Films.

Byrne, David

2004 Ile Aiye: House of Life. Plexi (documentary of Candomblé in Bahia through the eyes of the U.S. musician; includes footage of Candomblé rituals).

Denselow, Robin

2007 Brasil, Brasil. Series of three documentaries: "Samba to Bossa," "Tropicália Revolution," and "A Tale of Four Cities." England: BBC 4 (the series includes a historical overview of Brazilian music from Samba to Bossa Nova, to Tropicália, and an overview of music in contemporary Brazil).

Dreyfus, Dominique

2010 Gilberto Gil: The Power of Music. Zaradoc Films (about the Tropicália musician).

Gatesman, Jeff.

2008 Amazonas: The Tears of a Full Moon. Rocket 88 Studios/Amazonas Film Company (a journey through the Amazon river documents a variety of musical expressions, including the Boi-Bumbá celebrations in Parintins).

HBL, Leandro and Wesley Pentz

2008 Favela on Blast. Mad Decent (about bailes funk in Rio de Janeiro).

Kaurismäki, Mika and George Moura

2006 Moro no Brasil. Burbank, CA: Milan Entertainment (documents a variety of musical performances in Pernambuco, Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro).

Kaurismäki, Mika and Marco Forster

2007 The Sound of Rio: Brasileirinho. Burbank, CA: Milan Entertainment (features information about the history of choro and live performances of choro in contemporary Brazil with interviews; Portuguese with English subtitles).

KS, Julian and Mo Bazazi

2010 Slum, Drums, and Capoeira. Whitematter Ldt (traces the history and styles of capoeira from its origins in Bahia to today’s Rio de Janeiro).

Lírio Ferreira, Lacerda and Hilton

2006 Cartola: The Samba Legend. Brasil (biography of the samba legend

Cartola [1909–1980] with footage of his performances and the early years of samba in Rio de Janeiro; Portuguese with English subtitles).

Luis Ferneto Goulart and Luiz Carlos Maciel

2008 Mestre Bimba: A Capoeira Iluminada. Biscoito Fino Studios/ Lumen Produç›es (Portuguese with English subtitles; about the capoeirista master and the practice of capoeira).

Mello, Branco

2009 Titãs: A vida até parece uma festa. Moviemobz (with footage of the

band’s concerts and recordings; in Portuguese).

Mochary, Matt and Jeff Zimbalist

2005 Favela Rising. Santa Monica, CA: Genious Entertainment (the story of Anderson Sá, a resident of a Rio favela who turns into a social revolutionary with the creation of the Afro-reggae movement; Portuguese with English subtitles).

Montes-Bradley, Eduardo and Juan Trasmonte

2005 Samba on Your Feet. New York, NY: Filmakers Library (discusses the complex racial and social histories that gave birth to the urban samba, including footage of samba school rehearsals and interviews with samba personalities; Portuguese with English subtitles).

Moraes-Liu, Carolina

2001 Festive Land: Carnaval in Bahia. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Media (about carnival in Salvador, Bahia, with appearances by Daniela Mercury, Gilberto Gil, and Afoxés and Afro groups; English/Portuguese with

English subtitles).

2001 Bossa Nova: Music and Reminiscences. Montpelier, VT: Multicultural Media (history of bossa nova in Brazil and the United States with historic performances by Tom Jobim and others).

Thiago, Paulo

2008 Bossa Brazil—Stories of Love, The Birth of Bossa Nova. Warner Music Entertainment (history of Bossa Nova with interviews and archival footage; Portuguese with English subtitles).

Waddington, Andrucha

2002 Viva São João (with Gilberto Gil). Rio de Janeiro; Conspiração Filmes (about Northeast June celebrations when Forró parties with baião and other genres are the most popular; Portuguese with English subtitles).



Villa-Lobos, H.

2009 Complete Choros and Bachianas. São Paulo Symphony Orchestra, John Neshling, conductor. São Paulo: Bis.


Various artists

2005 Brazil Classics 3: Forró. Luaka Bop (reissue of 2000 album; various artists, including Luiz Gonzaga).


Various artists

2007 Toadas: Sons da Amazonia. Atração Fonografica (compilation of popular toadas used in Boi-bumbá parade in Parintins).


Various artists

2000 Brazil Classics 2: O samba. Luaka Bop (compilation of famous samba-song and pagode performers).

2003 Batucada Brasileira: Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel. Rio de Janeiro: Iris (school of samba).

2005 Carmen Miranda: The Ultimate Collection. Prism (compilation with most important recordings).


Various artists

2004 O choro dos chor›es. BMG (compilation of classics of choro music performed by Pixinguinha, Benedito Lacerda, Jacob do Bandolim, Canhoto, and other famous artists of the style).

Bossa Nova

Various artists

1997 Getz/Gilberto. Verve Records (re-issue of original, classic 1964 recording; with João Gilberto, Stan Getz, Tom Jobim on the piano, and Astrud Gilberto singing).

2000 Antonio Carlos Jobim’s Finest Hour. Verve.

Rock, Metal, Mangue Bit, and Punk

Chico Science & Nacão Zumbi

1996 Da lama ao caos. Sony Music (first album that established the mangue sound).

Legião Urbana

1998 Mais do mesmo. EMI (compilation of most popular songs).

Paralamas do Sucesso

1990 Arquivo. EMI (compilation of early hits).


1996 Roots. Roaddrunner (with participation by several Brazilian musicians).


1994 Titãs: 84–94, 2 vols. WEA (compilation of most popular songs).

MPB and Tropic ália

Various artists

1999 Tropicalia Essentials. Hip-O Records (compilation).

2007 Chico Buarque: Perfil. Universal Music (compilation with most popular songs).

Candomblé and Capoeira

Various artists

1995 Candomblé: Afro-Brazilian Music. Buda Musique.

1996 Capoeira Angola, Bahia, Salvador. Smithsonian Folkways.

Carnaval Bahia


1992 The Best of Olodum. WEA (compilation of early hits).

Santagalo, Ivete

2009 Ivete Santagalo: Pode entrar. Universal UK/Zom (latest recording by the new diva of Axé music in Salvador).


Various artists

1954 Music from Mato Grosso. Smithsonian Folkways (early recordings in the Upper Xingu River, Amazon).

1995 Ritual Music of the Kayapó-Xikrin, by Max Peter Bauman. Smithsonian Folkways.

Rap and Funk

Pensador, Gabriel O

2000 Gabriel O Pensador. Sony/BMG Brazil (reissue of the 1993 controversial CD by the Brazilian rapper that is now a classic).

Racionais MCs

2000 Sobrevivendo no inferno. Zimbabue (re-issue of the rap group’s1997 hit album).

Various artists

2004 Rio Baile Funk: Favela Booty Beats. Essay Recordings (compilation).


Zezé di Carmargo & Luciano

2006 15 anos de carreira. Sony/BMG Brazil (compilation of best recordings by the famous duo sertanejo).