Chapter Outline

  1. Collapse and integration
    1. The Black Death, a disease that stemmed from a combination of bubonic, pneumonic, and septicaemic strains, was the most significant historical development of the fourteenth century.
      1. Rodents and humans carried the plague bacilli, and the disease spread through Afro-Eurasian overland and sea trade routes
      2. The plague caused a staggering loss of life, with a death rate between 25 to 65 percent.
    2. Rebuilding states
      1. The basis for political legitimacy and power was the dynasty or the hereditary ruling family passing power from generation to generation.
        1. power derived from the divine: "mandate of heaven," or "divine right"
        2. clear rules of succession
        3. consolidates or extends power through conquest, alliance, or laws and punishment
  2. Islamic dynasties
    1. The Black Death and Mongol invasions brought an end to the old political order for the Abbasid Empire and its capital, Baghdad, and led the emergence of three new Islamic states: the Ottomans, the Safavids, and the Mughal dynasties.
    2. The Mongol legacy and the rise of new Islamic dynasties
      1. The Mongols, with their small population, assimilated into the cultures of the conquered, adopting language and converting to Islam.
      2. The Mongols had two components to their rule: terror tactics that coerced the conquered into voluntary submission, and the promotion and exchange of technology, knowledge, and skills, which benefited their vast empire.
      3. The aftermath of Mongol rule and the Black Death created power shifts to create a new Islamic world.
    3. Three Islamic empires emerge, the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal, expanding from an Arabic-dominated Islamic world to include the Turkish and Persian-speaking populations.
      1. The Ottomans became the most powerful because they occupied the strategic area between Europe and Asia, including former Byzantine territories.
    4. Rise of the Ottoman Empire
      1. Seljuk Turk warrior nomads transformed themselves into the rulers of a highly bureaucratic empire.
      2. Under Osman (r. 1299-1326), the Turks consolidated their power by attracting artisans, merchants, bureaucrats and clerics.
        1. Ottomans became champions of Sunni Islam.
        2. By the mid-fourteenth century, the Ottomans created a vast multiethnic and multilingual empire in the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia.
        3. Ottomans created a large bureaucracy with the sultan at the head.
      3. The conquest of Constantinople
        1. The empire's spectacular expansion was due to their mighty military power, which also generated vast financial and administrative rewards.
        2. The most spectacular triumph of Mehmed the Conqueror (r. 1451-1481) was the 1453 conquest of Constantinople, the capital of the Roman/Byzantine Empire, which he renamed Istanbul.
        3. The fall had positive cultural benefits for western Europe because Christian refugees brought classical text to western Europe, stimulating a European renaissance.
        4. Ottoman military expansion continued with the conquest of European cities in Greece, Bosnia, Italy, Hungary, Croatia, and Austria.
        5. By the late fifteenth century, Ottomans controlled ports and sea routes on the Mediterranean, blocking European access to Asian trade.
      4. The tools of empire building
        1. Under Suleiman (r. 1520-1566), Ottomans reached the height of their territorial expansion with 20 to 30 million subjects.
          1. Called "The Great Turk," "the Lawgiver," and "the Magnificent," Suleiman was a gifted military leader and administrator.
        2. Ottoman dynastic power fused the secular with the sacred.
          1. Sultans called themselves "shadow of God" on earth.
          2. Sultans became defenders and protectors of the faith, constructing mosques and supporting Islamic schools.
      5. Istanbul and the Topkapi Palace reflected the splendor, power, and wealth of the Ottoman Islamic Empire.
        1. Suleiman built his crowning architectural achievement, the Suleymaniye Mosque, opposite the Hagia Sophia, the most sacred of Christian cathedrals, and also built many other construction projects.
        2. Istanbul became the largest city in the world outside of China.
        3. Topkapi Palace was not only the command post of the empire but also reflected Ottoman views of governance, religion, and family traditions as it included:
          1. A majestic and distant home for rulers, commanders, and the bureaucracy
          2. Bureaucratic offices and a training school
          3. A harem with its own hierarchy of rank and prestige of 10,000 to 12,000 women
            1. Sultan's mother and favorite consorts were at the top, at the bottom were slaves.
            2. At the death of a sultan, the entire retinue of women was banished to the Palace of Tears.
      6. Diversity and control allowed the Ottoman Empire to endure into the twentieth century.
        1. While Turkish was the official language of administration, Ottomans promoted a flexible and tolerant language policy.
        2. Ottomans allowed for regional autonomy, allowing local appointees to keep a portion of taxes for Istanbul and for themselves.
        3. In order to limit local autonomy, Ottomans created a corps of infantry soldiers and bureaucrats with direct allegiance to the sultan called Janissaries.
          1. Christian boys between the ages of eight to eighteen conscripted from Europe, devshirme
          2. Recipients of the best Islamic education in the world in Ottoman military, religious, and administrative techniques
    5. The Safavid Empire in Iran
      1. In Persia, the Safavid Empire emerged based on the Islamic Shia tradition, which was very different from Ottoman Sunni faith.
      2. Mongol conquest brought greater destruction to Persia, leaving the region more volatile and unstable.
        1. Initially, Mongols rejected Islam but practiced religious toleration, hiring Jewish administrators and Christian soldiers.
        2. 1295, the khan or ruler declared Islam as the state religion.
        3. After Mongol decline, the region fell to the Sufi brotherhood or Safavids, Turkish-speaking warriors who embraced Shiism and were led by Safi al-Din (1252-1334).
      3. The Safavids created a single-mindedly religious state, with Shah Ismail (r. 1501-1524) as the most dynamic ruler.
        1. Ismail declared Shiism the official state religion; subjects forced to choose between conversion or death.
        2. 1502, Ismail declared himself the first shah (Persian word for king) of the Safavid Empire.
        3. He revived the Persian notion that shahs are divinely chosen.
        4. Activist clergy viewed themselves as political and religious enforcers against heretical authority.
      4. Because Safavids did not tolerate diversity, they never created an expansive empire and transformed the former Sunni territory into a Shiite stronghold.
    6. The Delhi Sultanate and the early Mughal Empire
      1. Mughals created a regime on the foundations of the Delhi Sultanate, which avoided Mongol conquest but had to face Tamerlane and his nomadic warriors
        1. Delhi Sultanate powerful enough to push the Mongols back in 1303
        2. Delhi Sultanate weak enough to succumb to Turkish invaders led by Timur or Tamerlane
      2. Rivalries, religious revival, and the first Mughal emperor
      3. The collapse of the Delhi Sultanate precipitated religious revivals
        1. Sufism in Bengal, a form of Islam
        2. Bhakti Hinduism also in Bengal
        3. Sikhism in Punjab, a form of Islam founded by Nanak (1469-1539) in northern India
          1. Sikhism different from traditional Islam in that it stresses the Islamic concept of the unity of God, but also the unimportance of prophets, and a Hindu belief in rebirth
      4. Punjab governor invited Turkish/Mongol Prince Babur ("Tiger"), the great grandson of Timur to India in 1526.
        1. Babur laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire, the third great Islamic dynasty.
      5. The three new Islamic empires, all established their legitimacy via military, religious, and bureaucratic powers, enabling them to claim vast domains that continued the movement of goods, ideas, merchants, and scholars beyond and across political boundaries.
  3. Western Christendom
    1. High Middle Ages (1100-1300) experienced growth in prosperity, population, and cultural achievements.
      1. Population growth pulled laborers from the countryside to cities.
        1. European cities faced a housing crunch.
        2. Women still were excluded from professions but made gains in retail trades, weaving, and food production.
      2. Most of Europe's 80 million inhabitants stayed rooted to their local communities.
      3. Growing prosperity allowed for a cultural flowering with advances in the arts, technology, learning, architecture, and banking.
        1. Universities attracted people to medicine, law, and theology.
        2. Some scholars turned to Islamic, Greek, and Roman learning.
    2. Reactions, revolts, and religion
      1. Climate changes beginning around 1310 brought famine, and millions died of starvation.
      2. The plague in Europe
        1. Killed nearly two-thirds of Europe's population from 1346 to 1353
        2. Cities were especially vulnerable because they were overcrowded and unsanitary.
        3. By 1450, Europe's population had fallen to one-quarter of its size.
        4. Created lasting psychological, social, economic, and political changes
          1. Individuals turned to pleasure, debauchery, spirituality, and even religious masochism.
          2. Flagellants in England engaged in public self-punishment by whipping themselves with flagella (whips with metal pieces) until they became bloody and swollen.
          3. Peasants became hostile to clergy excesses or absence in this time of crisis.
      3. The Church's response
        1. Struggled to reclaim their power as they faced challenges from the top and from below
        2. Increased persecution of heretics, Jews, Muslims, homosexuals, prostitutes, and "witches."
        3. Also expanded its charity, giving alms to the poor
      4. A weakening feudal order
        1. Large-scale peasant revolts
          1. A French peasant revolt and rampage on nobles and clergy in 1358
          2. English Peasants' Revolt of 1381 started as a protest against tax increases and expanded to include serf freedom, higher farm worker wages, and lower rents.
    3. State building and economic recovery
      1. Europe's rulers attempted to rebuild and consolidate their power.
        1. The most powerful ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs, provided emperors for the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806.
          1. Never restored western Europe to an integrated empire
        2. Europe had no unifying language because Latin lost ground to regional dialects.
        3. Rulers faced obstacles from rival private armies, the clergy, and critics with the printing press.
        4. Europe's political reorganization took the form of centralized national monarchies or city-states where the wealthy selected their leaders and occurred through:
          1. Strategic marriages
          2. Warfare
          3. Growing economies because of trade with Southwest Asia
    4. Political consolidation and trade in Portugal
      1. Portugal is an example of how political stabilization and the revival of trade were intertwined.
      2. Western Europe followed the Portuguese example of creating national monarchies, while in northern Europe, the lack of access to trade added to political instabilities.
      3. The Portuguese devoted to fighting North African Muslim Moors
        1. Seized the North African fortress at Ceuta, Morocco, allowing them access to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic without interference
        2. Also defeated Castile (modern Spain)
        3. Henry the Navigator conquered the Atlantic Islands off of the north and west African coast.
          1. Monarchs granted land to hereditary nobility to colonize, and the nobility supported the monarchs in return.
          2. Colonizers established lucrative sugar plantations on the islands.
    5. Dynasty building and reconquest in Spain
      1. Spain faced an arduous journey to state building because of rivalry among kingdoms and the lack of religious uniformity.
      2. The Union of Castile and Aragon or the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469
        1. Wealthy and populated Castile united with Aragon, which had the Mediterranean trading networks.
        2. They married their children to other European royal families, especially the most powerful, the Habsburgs.
        3. Pushed Muslim forces almost completely out of Iberia, the last strategic and symbolic victory with Granada
      3. The Inquisition and westward exploration
        1. Isabella and Ferdinand attempted to drive out all non-Catholics from Spain.
        2. 1481, the Inquisition targeted conversos, or Christian converted Jews and Muslims.
        3. After the fall of Granada in 1492, the monarchs ordered all Jews and some Moors, half a million, out of Spain.
        4. Monarchs gave their royal support to a Genoese navigator, Christopher Columbus, who promised them unimaginable wealth.
      4. The struggles of France and England, and the success of small states
        1. French victory in the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) against the English, started the process of consolidating French power under the House of Valois.
        2. Joan of Arc, a peasant girl with divine visions, became a symbol of French patriotism and turned the tide of war for the French.
          1. Charles VII granted her an army of 7,000 to 8,000 men
          2. Joan, a young woman in male attire, achieved great military victories, with brilliance and charisma.
          3. Eventually, the English captured her, tried her for heresy and burnt her at the stake.
        3. In England, civil war between the houses of Lancaster and York in the War of the Roses led to the House of Tudor seizing the throne in 1485.
        4. European states were very small; Portugal's 1 million or Spain's 9 million compared to Ottoman's 25 million, Ming China's 200 million, or Mughal's 110 million.
        5. Small proved advantageous as Italian city-states developed banking techniques; merchants enjoyed their link to the eastern Mediterranean, and the Renaissance began.
    6. European identity and the Renaissance
      1. Europe's political and economic revival included the Renaissance, or the cultural achievements in the Italian city-states, France, the Low Countries, England, and the Holy Roman Empire in the period of 1430 to1550.
        1. The Renaissance broke the church monopoly on knowledge and opened the way for secular forms of learning.
      2. The Italian Renaissance
        1. Renaissance is about the rebirth or new exposure to ancient Greek and Roman knowledge to understand human experience, humanism.
        2. Popes, Christian kings, and wealthy merchants funded much of the Renaissance.
        3. Renaissance artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, and Michelangelo Buonarroti applied Greco-Roman techniques to Christian themes.
      3. The Renaissance spreads due to increasing economic prosperity, the circulation of literature and art, and interstate rivalry.
        1. Some women were offered better access to education.
      4. The republic of letters-a network of elite, cosmopolitan scholars or correspondents interested in gaining knowledge, searching for patrons, or fleeing persecution
      5. Competing ideas of governance
        1. A network of educated men and women who acquired the means to challenge political, clerical, and aesthetic authority.
        2. Florentines pioneered a form of civic humanism under which all citizens were to devote themselves to ensuring liberty.
        3. Florentine's Machiavelli wrote the most famous treatise on politics, The Prince (1513), which claimed political leadership was about mastering the amoral means of power and statecraft.
        4. The Renaissance revolutionized European culture by creating a culture of cosmopolitan critics who sought classical ideas to address the challenges of an expanding world.
  4. Ming China
    1. Mongols and the Black Death led the way for the Ming dynasty to emerge.
    2. Chaos and recovery
      1. Famine and Black Death devastated China; some cities like Bei Zhili (modern Hebei) experienced a death toll of 90 percent.
      2. Yuan Mongol rulers faced chaos and dissidence
        1. The most prominent, the Red Turban Movement, blended Buddhism, Daoism, and other philosophies with strict practices involving diet, penance, and ceremonies in which the sexes freely mixed and wore red headbands.
        2. Red Turban Commander Zhu Yuanzhang started driving Mongols from China beginning with Nanjing in 1356.
      3. Zhu founded the Ming ("brilliant") dynasty in 1368.
    3. Centralization under the Ming
      1. Ming rulers faced a formidable challenge of rebuilding cities, restoring respect for rulers, and reconstructing the bureaucracy.
      2. Imperial grandeur and kinship
        1. Emperor Zhu or Hongwu ("expansive and martial") built an extravagant capital in Nanjing.
        2. Emperor Yongle ("perpetual happiness") built an even more grandiose and awe-inspiring capital in Beijing, the Forbidden City, a walled imperial city with boulevards, courtyards, and palace.
        3. Marriage and kinship increased Ming power; Zhu Hongwu married the daughter of a Red Turban rival, Empress Ma.
        4. Empress Ma became the kinder, gentler face of the Zhu Hongwu regime.
      3. Building a bureaucracy
        1. Emperor Zhu Hongwu first sought to rule through kinsmen, but soon established a merit and civil service exam based imperial bureaucracy.
        2. He implemented a highly centralized imperial bureaucracy and administrative network.
          1. Installed bureaucrats to oversee the manufacture of porcelain, cotton, and silk as well as tax collection
          2. Reestablished the Confucian civil service examination system
          3. Created local village networks to build irrigation and reforestation projects (one billion trees)
          4. Bureaucratic hierarchy forced all officials to answer to emperor.
        3. The Ming established the most highly centralized government of the period.
    4. Religion under the Ming
      1. Emperors used "community" gatherings of rituals to reinforce their image as mediator between the spiritual world of gods and worldy affairs of the empire.
      2. Conflict between state-sanctioned cults and Buddhist monasteries showed the limits of Ming power.
        1. Residents of Dongyang delivered their funds to the Buddhist monks rather than to Ming magistrates.
    5. Ming rulership
      1. Religion played a smaller role in establishing the Ming dynasty than with Islamic empires.
      2. The Ming created an elaborate system for classifying and controlling its subjects than other Afro-Asiatic Empires did.
        1. Emperor Hongwu appointed village chiefs, village elders, or tax captains in order to manage his empire.
        2. The dynasty created a social hierarchy to manage people based on age, sex, and kinship.
      3. The Ming stymied threats with outright terror and repression.
      4. Empire remained unde governed because of the immense task for 10,000 to 15,000 officials managing over 200 million people.
      5. Emperor Hongwu's legacy enabled other Ming successors to balance centralizing ambitions with local sources of power.
    6. Trade under the Ming
      1. Political stability in the fourteenth century allowed merchants to revive China's preeminence in long-distance trade.
      2. Overseas trade: Success and suspicion
        1. Chinese port cities flourished as entrepôts for global goods.
        2. Emperor Hongwu feared contact with the outside world would undermine his rule.
          1. Hongwu banned private maritime commerce in 1371, although enforcement was lax.
          2. Trade surged despite constant friction between government officials and maritime traders.
    7. Maritime exploration and aftermath
      1. Emperor Yongle's sponsorship of a series of spectacular expeditions in the early fifteenth century was an exception to Ming attitudes toward the outside world.
      2. From 1405 1433, Admiral Zheng He led seven expeditions in the Indian Ocean to establish trade and tributary relationships.
        1. Zheng He's ships were five times those of Christopher Columbus.
      3. Although exotic and glamorous goods delighted the court, they were not everyday commerce, and Ming rulers withdrew imperial support for expensive maritime trade.
      4. While maritime trade continued without official patronage, Chinese naval power decline led the way for rivals from Southeast and Southwest Asia.
  5. Conclusion
    1. The Black Death and its devastation transformed the societies of Afro-Eurasia, shaping and transforming new states and empires.
    2. Each state developed distinctive traits and innovative ways of rule, often borrowed from neighbors.
    3. States legitimized rule with dynastic marriage, state religion, administrative bureaucracies, and commercial expansion.
    4. The turning point in world history is marked by Europe, motivated by Ottoman conquests, seeking new trade connections, just as the Chinese decided to turn away for overseas exploration.