Chapter Outline

  1. Alternative Pathways and Ideas
  2. Eastern Zhou China
    1. New Ideas and the “Hundred Masters”
    2. Scholars and the State
      1. Warring Ideas: Confucianism versus Daoism—On the Foundations of Government
    3. Innovations in State Administration
    4. Innovations in Warfare
    5. Economic, Social, and Cultural Changes
  3. The New Worlds of South Asia
    1. The Rise of New Polities
    2. Evolution of the Caste System
    3. New Cities and an Expanding Economy
    4. Brahmans, Their Challengers, and New Beliefs
      1. Warring Ideas: The Buddha versus the Brahmans—On the Origin of the King
  4. Common Cultures in the Americas
    1. The Chav’n in the Andes
    2. The Olmecs in Mesoamerica
      1. Olmec Art as Ideology
  5. Common Cultures in Sub-Saharan Africa
    1. The Four Zones
    2. Nubia: Between Sudanic Africa and Pharaonic Egypt
      1. “Axial Age” Thinkers and Their Ideas
    3. West African Kingdoms
      1. Reconstructing the History of Preliterate African Peoples
  6. Warring Ideas in the Mediterranean World
    1. New Thinking and New Societies at the Margins
    2. A New World of City-States
    3. Economic Innovations and Population Movement
    4. New Ideas
      1. Warring Ideas: Plato versus Aristotle—On Gaining Knowledge of the Essence of the World
  7. Conclusion
  8. Tracing the Global Storylines