Chapter Study Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. Marinetti and futurism
      1. A radical renewal of civilization through "courage, audacity, and revolt"
      2. The beauty of speed
      3. The heroic violence of warfare
    2. A radically new world
      1. Second industrial revolution
      2. New demands in the political arena
      3. Socialist mobilization of industrial workers
      4. White suffragists demand the franchise
    3. The challenge of the twentieth century
  2. New Technologies and Global Transformations
    1. New technologies
      1. Steel
        1. Between the 1850s and 1870s, the cost of producing steel decreased
        2. Steel industry dominated by Germany and the United States
      2. Electricity
        1. By the 1880s, alternators and transformers produce high-voltage alternating current
        2. Edison invented the incandescent filament lamp in 1879
      3. Chemicals
        1. Efficient production of alkali and sulfuric acid
          1. Transformed manufacture of paper, soaps, textiles, and fertilizer
        2. British led the way in soaps and cleaners and in mass marketing
        3. German production focused on industrial uses—synthetic dyes and refining petroleum
      4. The liquid-fuel internal combustion engine
      5. By 1914, most navies had converted from coal to oil
      6. Discovery of oil fields in Russia, Borneo, Persia, and Texas
      7. Discovering the potential for worldwide industrialization
    2. Changes in scope and scale
      1. Technological changes created changes in scope and scale of industry
      2. Technology as cause and consequence of the race toward a bigger, faster, cheaper, and more efficient world
      3. The rise of heavy industry and mass marketing
      4. National mass cultures
        1. Watched as Europe divided the globe
        2. Feats of engineering mastery
        3. The ideals of modern European industry
      5. Changes
        1. Population grew constantly
        2. Food shortages declined
        3. Populations less susceptible to illness, lower infant mortality
        4. Advances in medicine, nutrition, and personal hygiene
        5. Improved housing and sanitation
      6. Consumption
        1. Consumption as a center of economic activity and theory
        2. The appearance of the department store
        3. Modern advertising
        4. Credit payments
      7. New patterns of consumption were decidedly urban
    3. The rise of the corporation
      1. Economic growth and demands of mass consumption spurred the reorganization of capitalist institutions
      2. The modern corporation appeared
        1. Limited-liability laws
          1. Stockholders would only lose their share value in the event of bankruptcy
          2. Middle classes now considered corporate investment promising
      3. Size and control
        1. Larger corporations became necessary for survival
        2. Control shifted from the family to distant bankers and financiers
        3. An ethos of impersonal finance capital
        4. Demand for technical expertise
          1. Undercut traditional forms of family management
          2. University-trained engineers
        5. The white-collar class: middle-level salaried managers, neither owners nor laborers
      4. Consolidation would protect industries from cyclical fluctuations and unbridled competition
      5. Vertical integration
        1. Industries controlled every step of production
          1. From acquisition of raw materials to distribution of finished goods
          2. Andrew Carnegie's steel company in Pittsburgh
      6. Horizontal integration
        1. Organized into cartels
        2. Companies in the same industry would band together
          1. Fixing prices and controlling competition
          2. Coal, oil, and steel were particularly well adapted
          3. Rockefeller's Standard Oil
      7. Dominant trend was increased cooperation between government and industry
      8. Appearance of businessmen and financiers as officers of state
    4. International economics
      1. Search for markets, goods, and influence fueled imperial expansion
      2. Trade barriers arose to protect home markets
        1. All nations except Britain raised tariffs
      3. An interlocking, worldwide system of manufacturing, trade, and finance
      4. Near-universal adoption of the gold standard
      5. Most European countries imported more than they exported
        1. Relied on "invisible" exports: shipping, insurance, and banking
        2. London as money market of the world
      6. Mass manufacturing and commodity production changed patterns of consumption and production
  3. Labor Politics, Mass Movements
    1. Changes in the European working class
      1. In general, workers resented corporate power
      2. The "new unionism"
        1. Labor unions evolved into mass, centralized, national organizations
        2. Organization across whole industries
        3. Brought unskilled workers into the ranks
        4. Gave labor power to negotiate wages and conditions of work
        5. Provided the framework for the socialist mass party
      3. Changes in national political structure
        1. Opened the political process to new participants
        2. Efforts to expand the franchise (1860s-1870s)
        3. New constituencies of working-class men
        4. Labor's struggle with capital cast on a national scale
        5. Socialist organizations abandoned their insurrectionary radicalism and opted for reform
      4. Karl Marx
        1. Published first volume of Das Kapital in 1867)
          1. Attacked capitalism in terms of political economy
          2. A systematic analysis of production
        2. The Marxist appeal
          1. Provided a crucial foundation for building a democratic mass politics
          2. Made powerful claims for gender equality
          3. The promise of a better future
      5. The workers' movement
        1. The First International (1864-1876)
        2. Some followed Marx
        3. Others followed the Russian anarchist, Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876)
    2. The spread of socialist parties—and alternatives
      1. Marxist socialism spread to social democratic parties in Germany, Belgium, France, Austria, and Russia
        1. Disciplined, politicized workers' organizations
        2. Aimed at seizing control of the state for revolutionary change
      2. The model of all socialist parties was the German Social Democratic Party (SPD, founded 1875)
        1. Strove for political change within Germany's parliamentary system
        2. Eventually adopted an explicitly Marxist platform
      3. Before World War I, the Social Democrats were the best-organized workers' party in the world: explanations
        1. Rapid and extension industrialization
        2. Large urban working class
        3. A new parliamentary constitution
        4. A national government hostile to organized labor
        5. No tradition of liberal reform
      4. Britain
        1. Labour Party (1901)
        2. Remained moderate and committed to incremental reform
      5. Anarchism
        1. Opposed to centrally organized economics and politics
        2. Advocated small-scale, localized democracy
        3. Similar foundations as Marxism, but different approaches to change
        4. Conspiratorial vanguard violence
        5. The assassination of Tsar Alexander II (1881)
        6. Bakunin: "exemplary terror" could spark popular revolt
      6. Syndicalism
        1. Demanded that workers share ownership and control of the means of production
        2. The capitalist state must be replaced by workers' syndicates or trade associations
        3. Called for mass forms of direct action
    3. The limits of success
      1. Socialist parties never gained full worker support
        1. Some workers retained loyalty to liberal traditions or religious affiliation
        2. Others were excluded
        3. What constituted the working class?
      2. German revisionism
        1. Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) called for a shift to moderate reform
      3. German radicals
        1. Rosa Luxembourg (1870-1919) called for mass strikes, hoping to ignite a proletarian revolution
      4. Conflict over strategy and tactics reached its climax in the years before World War I
  4. Demanding Equality: Suffrage and the Women's Movement
    1. Women's rights
      1. By 1884, Germany, France, and Britain had enfranchised most men
      2. Women relegated to status as second-class citizens
      3. Women pressed their interests through independent organizations and forms of direct action
    2. Women's organizations
      1. General German Women's Association
        1. Pressed for educational and legal reforms
      2. Votes became the symbol for women's ability to attain full personhood
      3. Middle-class women founded clubs, published journals, organized petitions
    3. British women's suffrage campaigns
      1. Exploded in violence
      2. Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929)
        1. National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (1897)
          1. Composed of sixteen different organizations
          2. Her movement lacked political and economic clout
      3. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)
        1. Founded the Women's Social and Political Union (1903)
        2. Adopted tactics of militancy and civil disobedience
          1. Women chained themselves to the visitor's gallery in the House of Commons
          2. Slashed paintings in museums
          3. Disrupted political meetings
          4. Burned the homes of politicians
        3. The British government countered this violence with repression
      4. Six-hour riot between suffragists and police in 1910
      5. The martyrdom of Emily Wilding Davison (1913)
    4. Redefining womanhood
      1. Campaign for women's suffrage helped redefine Victorian gender roles
      2. The increasing visibility of women
      3. Middle-class women and work
        1. Worked as social workers and clerks, nurses, and teachers
        2. British women established their own colleges at Oxford and Cambridge in the 1870s and 1880s
      4. Women, politics, and reform
        1. Poor relief, prison reform, temperance movements, abolition of slavery, education
      5. The "new" woman
        1. Demanded education and a job
        2. Claimed the right to be physically and intellectually active
        3. The new woman as image
          1. Few women actually fitted the image created by artists and journalists
        4. Opposition
          1. Never exclusively male opposition
          2. Mrs. Humphrey Ward— women in politics would sap the strength of the empire
          3. Christian commentators criticized suffragists for moral decay
          4. Others argued that feminism would dissolve the family
  5. Liberalism and Its Discontents: National Politics at the Turn of the Century
    1. Late-nineteenth-century liberalism
      1. Middle-class liberals found themselves on the defensive after 1870
      2. Mass politics upset the balance between middle-class interests and traditional elites
      3. Trade unions, socialists, and feminists all challenged Europe's governing class
      4. The government's response was a mixture of conciliation and repression
      5. What was required was a distinctly modern form of mass politics
    2. France: the embattled republic
      1. Franco-Prussian War (1870) a humiliating defeat for France
      2. Government of the Second Empire collapsed
      3. The Third Republic
        1. A new constitution (1875)
          1. Triumph of democratic and parliamentary principles
        2. Class conflict
      4. The Paris Commune (1871)
        1. Pitted the nation against the radical city of Paris
        2. Paris refused to surrender to the Germans
        3. Paris proclaimed itself to be the true government of France
        4. Government sends troops to Paris in March 1871
        5. Barricades and street fighting
        6. Twenty-five thousand were executed, killed in fighting, or consumed in fires
    3. The Dreyfus Affair and anti-Semitism as politics
      1. French anti-Semitism: a new form of radical right-wing politics (nationalist, antiparliamentary, and antiliberal)
      2. The Dreyfus Affair (1894)
        1. Dreyfus convicted of selling military secrets to Germany
        2. Sent to Devil's Island
        3. The verdict was questioned and documents were proven to be forgeries (1896)
        4. émile Zola (1840-1902) backed Dreyfus
          1. Blasted the French establishment in "J'accuse" (I Accuse)
        5. Dreyfus eventually freed in 1899 and cleared of all guilt in 1906
        6. Consequences
          1. Separation of church and state in France
          2. Republicans saw church army as hostile toward the republic
      3. Merged three strands of anti-Semitism
        1. Christian anti-Semitism (Jews as Christ killers)
        2. Economic anti-Semitism (Rothschild as representative of all Jews)
        3. Racial thinking (Jews as an inferior race)
      4. An ideology of hatred
        1. Jews in the army subverted national purpose
        2. Mass culture corrupted French culture
        3. Jews and wealth
      5. La Libre Parole (Free Speech, 1892), the Anti-Semitic League, and Jewish France (1886)
      6. The Third Republic
        1. Showed that the radical right and anti-Semitism were plainly political forces
    4. Zionism: Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)
      1. Considered the Dreyfus Affair to be an expression of a fundamental problem
        1. Jews might never be assimilated into European culture
      2. Endorsed Zionism—building a separate Jewish homeland outside Europe
      3. Zionism as a modern nationalist movement
      4. The State of the Jews (1896)
      5. Convened the first Zionist Congress in Switzerland in 1897
    5. Germany's search for imperial unity
      1. Bismarck united Germany under the banner of Prussian conservatism (1864-1871)
        1. Sought to create the centralizing institutions of a modern state
        2. Safeguarding the privileges of Germany's national interests
        3. The conservative upper house (Bundesrat) and the democratic lower house (Reichstag)
        4. Executive power rested solely with William I (1797-1888, r. 1861- 1888), king and kaiser (emperor)
        5. Cabinet ministers answered only to the kaiser
      2. Three problems
        1. Divide between Catholics and Protestants
        2. Growing Social Democratic Party
        3. Divisive economic interests of agriculture and industry
      3. Kulturkampf (cultural struggle)
        1. Bismarck unleashed an anti-Catholic campaign
        2. Apealed to sectarian tensions over public education and civil marriages
        3. Passed laws that imprisoned priests for political sermons
        4. Banned Jesuits from Prussia
        5. The campaign backfired
          1. Catholic Center Party won seats in the Reichstag in 1874
          2. Bismarck negotiated an alliance with the Catholic Center
      4. The new coalition
        1. Agricultural and industrial interests as well as socially conservative Catholics
      5. Social Democrats as the new enemies of the empire
        1. Bismarck passed antisocialist laws in 1878
        2. Expelled socialists from major cities
      6. Social welfare
        1. Workers guaranteed sickness and accident insurance
        2. Rigorous factory inspection
        3. Limited working hours for women and children
        4. Old-age pensions
      7. Social welfare legislation did not win the loyalty of workers
      8. William II (1859-1941, r. 1888-1918)
        1. Suspended antisocialist legislation in 1890 and legalized the SPD
    6. Britain: from moderation to militance
      1. The Second Reform Bill (1867)
      2. Liberal and Conservative political parties
      3. New laws
        1. Legality of trade unions
        2. Rebuilding large urban areas
        3. Elementary education for all children
        4. Male Dissenters can attend Oxford or Cambridge
        5. 75 percent of adult males enfranchised by 1894
      4. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)— Conservative and William Gladstone (1809-1898)—Liberal
        1. Both offered moderate programs that appealed to a widening electorate
      5. The moderate working class
        1. The Independent Labour Party (1901)
      6. 1906 welfare legislation
      7. David Lloyd George (1863-1945) and the People's Budget of 1909
        1. Progressive income and inheritance taxes
      8. Problems
        1. Liberal parliamentary framework began to show signs of collapse
        2. Nationwide strikes of coal and railway workers
        3. Irish radical nationalists began to favor armed revolution
        4. Sinn Féin and the Irish Republican Brotherhood
        5. Home Rule tabled (1913)
    7. Russia: the road to revolution
      1. Internal conflicts and an autocratic political system
      2. Threatened by Western industrialization and Western political doctrines
      3. Russian industrialization (1880s-1890s)
        1. State-directed industrial development
        2. Serfs emancipated in 1861
        3. No independent middle class capable of raising capital
        4. Heightened social tensions
        5. Workers left their villages temporarily to work and then returned for planting and harvest
      4. The legal system
        1. No recognition of trade unions or employers' associations
        2. Outdated banking and finance laws
      5. Alexander II (1818-1888, r. 1855-1881)
        1. The "Tsar Liberator"
        2. Tightened restrictions
        3. Set up zemstvos, provincial land and county assemblies (1804)
        4. Curtailed the rights of zemstvos, censorship of the press
        5. Assassinated by a radical
      6. Alexander III (1845-1894, r. 1881-1894)
        1. Steered the country toward the right
        2. Stern repression
          1. Curtailed power of the zemstvos
          2. Increased authority of the secret police
      7. Nicholas II (1868-1918, r. 1894-1917)
        1. Continued these "counterreforms"
        2. Advocated Russification to extend the language, religion, and culture of Greater Russia
        3. Pogroms and open anti-Semitism
      8. The Populists
        1. Russia to modernize on its own terms, not those of the West
        2. Based on the ancient village commune (mir)
        3. Mostly middle class, students, and women
        4. Overthrowing the tsar through anarchy and insurrection
        5. Dedicated their lives to the people
        6. Read Marx's Capital and emphasized peasant socialism
      9. Russian Marxism
        1. Organized as the Social Democratic Party
          1. Concentrated on urban workers
          2. Russian autocracy would give way to capitalism
          3. Capitalism would give way to a classless society
      10. Social Democratic Party split (1903)
        1. Bolsheviks (majority group)
          1. Called for a central party organization of active revolutionaries
          2. Rapid industrialization meant they did not have to follow Marx
        2. Mensheviks (minority group)
          1. Gradualist approach
          2. Reluctant to depart from Marxist orthodoxy
        3. Lenin
          1. Leader of the Bolsheviks while in exile
          2. Coordinated socialist movement
          3. Russia was ripe for revolution
          4. What Is to Be Done? (1902)
    8. The first Russian Revolution (1905)
      1. Causes
        1. The Russo-Japanese War
        2. Rapid industrialization had transformed Russia unevenly
        3. Low grain prices resulted in peasant uprisings
        4. Student radicalism
        5. Russian inefficiency
        6. Radical workers organized strikes and demonstrations
      2. Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905)
        1. Two hundred thousand workers led by Father Gapon demonstrated at the Winter Palace
        2. Guard troops killed 130 and wounded several hundred
      3. The protest grew
        1. Merchants closed stores
        2. Factory owners shut down factories
        3. Lawyers refused to hear cases
        4. The autocracy had lost control
      4. Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto
        1. Guaranteed individual liberties
        2. Moderately liberal franchise for the election of a Duma
        3. Genuine legislative veto powers for the Duma
      5. Nicholas failed to see that fundamental change was needed
        1. 1905-1907: Nicholas revoked most of the promises made in October
        2. Deprived the Duma of its principal powers
      6. Peter Stolypin (1862-1911) and the Stolypin reforms (1906-1911)
        1. Agrarian reforms for the sale of 5 million acres of royal land to peasants
        2. Granted peasants permission to withdraw for the mir
        3. Canceled peasant property debts
        4. Legalized trade unions
        5. Established sickness and accident insurance
      7. Russian agriculture remained suspended between emerging capitalism and the peasant commune
    9. Nationalism and imperial politics: the Balkans
      1. Rising nationalism divides the disintegrating Ottoman Empire
      2. Uprisings in Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Bulgaria (1875-1876)
        1. Reports of atrocities against Christians
        2. Led to the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
        3. The Treaty of San Stefano
          1. Terminated the conflict
          2. Forced the Turkish sultan to surrender all of his European territory
        4. The great powers intervened
      3. The Treaty of Berlin (1878)
        1. Bessarabia to Russia, Thessaly to Greece
        2. Bosnia and Herzegovina under Austrian control
        3. Montenegro, Serbia, and Romania become independent states
      4. The independent kingdom of Bulgaria (1908)
      5. Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
      6. Turkish nationalism
        1. Turks had grown impatient with weakness of the sultan
        2. The Young Turks
          1. Forced the sultan to establish a constitutional government in 1908
          2. Mohammed V (1909-1918) came to the throne
          3. Launched effort to "Ottomanize" all imperial subjects
          4. Tried to bring Christian and Muslim communities under more centralized control
          5. Spread Turkish culture
  6. The Science and the Soul of the Modern Age
    1. Darwin's revolutionary theory
      1. Organic evolution by natural selection transformed the conception of nature itself
      2. An unsettling new picture of human biology, behavior, and society
      3. Jean Lamarck (1744-1829)
        1. Behavioral changes could alter physical characteristics within a single generation
        2. New traits could be passed on to offspring
      4. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
        1. The Origin of Species (1859)
          1. Five years aboard
          2. H.M.S. Beagle
          3. Observed manifold variations of animal life
        2. Theorized that variations within a population made certain individuals better adapted for survival
          1. Drew on the population theories of Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
          2. Malthusian competition led to adaptation and ultimately survival
        3. Darwin used natural selection to explain the origin of new species
        4. Applied theory to plant and animal species as well as to man
        5. The Descent of Man (1871)
          1. The human race had evolved from an apelike ancestor
    2. Darwinian theory and religion
      1. Darwinian theory challenged deeply held religious beliefs
      2. Sparked a debate on the existence of God
      3. For Darwin, the world was not governed by order, harmony, and divine will but by random chance and struggle
      4. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)
        1. Argued against Christians appalled by the implications of Darwinism
        2. Called himself an agnostic
        3. Opposed to all dogma
        4. You should follow reason as far as it can take you
    3. The rise of the social sciences
      1. Influence of Darwinism on sociology, psychology, anthropology, and economics
      2. New ways of quantifying and interpreting human experience
      3. Social Darwinism
        1. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
          1. Applied individual competition to classes, races, and nations
          2. Coined the expression "survival of the fittest"
          3. Condemned all forms of collectivism—the individual who "fit" was all-important
        2. Popularized notions of social Darwinism were easy to comprehend
          1. Integrated into popular vocabulary
          2. Justified the natural order of rich and poor
          3. Nationalists used social Darwinism to rationalize imperialism and warfare
          4. Also used to justify racial hierarchy and white superiority
    4. Challenges to Rationality: Pavlov, Freud, and Nietzsche
      1. The irrational and animalistic side of human nature
      2. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
        1. "Classical conditioning"
        2. A random stimulus can produce a physical reflex reaction
        3. Behaviorism
          1. Eschewed mind and consciousness
          2. Focused on physiological responses to the environment
      3. Sigmund Freud (1856-1936)
        1. Behavior largely motivated by unconscious and irrational forces
        2. Unconscious drives and desires conflict with the rational and moral conscience
        3. The psyche
          1. Id: undisciplined desires for pleasure and gratification
          2. Superego: the conscience (conditioned by morality and culture)
          3. Ego: area where the conflict between id and superego is worked out
      4. An objective (scientific) understanding of human behavior
      5. Anxiety over the value and limits of human reason
      6. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) and the attack on tradition
        1. Middle-class culture dominated by illusions and self-deceptions
        2. Rejected rational argumentation
        3. Bourgeois faith in science, progress, and democracy as a futile search for truth
        4. Ridiculed Judeo-Christian morality for instilling a repressive conformity
        5. Themes of personal liberation
    5. Religion and its critics
      1. The Roman Catholic Church on the defensive
      2. Pope Pius IX issued the Syllabus of Errors in 1864
        1. Condemned materialism, free thought, and religious relativism
        2. Convoked a church council (first one since the late sixteenth century)
        3. Doctrine of papal infallibility
        4. Denounced by the governments of several Catholic countries
      3. Pope Leo XIII
        1. Brought a more accommodating climate to the Church
        2. Acknowledged that there is good and evil in modern civilization
        3. Added a scientific staff to the Vatican, opened archives and observatories
      4. Protestants
        1. Little in the way of doctrine to help them defend their faith
        2. Pragmatism (Charles Peirce and William James)
          1. Truth was whatever produced useful, practical results
          2. If belief in God provided mental peace, then that belief was true
    6. New readers and the popular press
      1. Facilitated the spread of new ideas
      2. Rising literacy rates and new forms of printed mass culture
      3. Journalism
        1. Emphasis on the sensational
        2. Advertising
        3. "Yellow" journalism—entertainment, sensationalism, and the news
    7. The first moderns: innovations in art
      1. Modernism
        1. Questioning the moral and cultural values of liberal, middle-class society
        2. Characteristics
          1. Self-conscious sense of rupture from history and tradition
          2. Rejection of established values
          3. Insistence on an expressive and experimental freedom
        3. A new understanding of the relationship between art and society
      2. Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
        1. Devotee of occult mysticism
        2. The role of the visionary artist
        3. From soulless materialism to the psychic-spiritual life
    8. The revolt on canvas
      1. Modernism defined itself in opposition to the past
      2. A rejection of mainstream academic art
        1. Against the "shackles of verisimilitude" (Gauguin)
      3. Artists begin to turn their backs on the visual world
      4. New focus on the subjective, Psychologically oriented forms of self-expression
      5. French Impressionism
        1. Attempted to objectively record natural phenomena
        2. Captured the transitory play of light on surfaces
        3. The legacies of Claude Monet (1840-1926) and Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
          1. Paved the way for younger artists to experiment more freely
          2. Impressionist artists organized their own independent exhibitions
      6. Post-Impressionism
        1. Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
          1. Reducing natural forms to geometric equivalents
          2. Emphasis on subjective arrangement of color and form
          3. Art as a vehicle for an artist's self-expression
      7. Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) and Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
        1. Explored art's expressive potential with greater emotion and subjectivity
      8. German Expressionism
        1. Emil Nolde (1867-1956)
          1. Disillusionment with modern society
      9. Painters turned to acidic tones, violent figural distortions, and crude depictions of sexuality
      10. Edvard Munch (1863-1944) and Egon Schiele (1890-1918)
      11. Henri Matisse (1869-1954) and Pablo Picasso (1869-1954)
      12. Cubists, vorticists, and futurists
        1. Embraced a hard, angular aesthetic of the machine age
        2. The uncertainty of the future
  7. Conclusion
    1. Progress and the forces of change
    2. Decline and the forces of change