Chapter Study Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. The new science
      1. A body of knowledge
      2. A method of inquiry
      3. A community of practitioners and institutions
    2. The scientific revolution
      1. Heliocentricity
      2. A new mathematical physics
      3. New method of inquiry
      4. Science as a distinctive branch of knowledge
      5. Natural philosophy—the philosophy of nature
    3. Reason
      1. Reform government
      2. Reorder society
      3. Purify religion
  2. The Intellectual Origins of the Scientific Revolution
    1. Medieval antecedents
      1. Artists and their observations of the natural world
      2. The magnetic compass
      3. The printing press
      4. Gunpowder
      5. A fascination with light (optics and lens grinding)
      6. A natural world created by God
        1. Neoplatonism
    2. The Renaissance
      1. Humanists placed low value on science
        1. More interested in classical antiquity and the authority of the ancients
      2. Arabic translations of Greek classics
      3. Rediscovery of Ptolemy and Archimedes
      4. The universe as machine
      5. Developing collaboration between artisans and intellectuals
      6. Building machines for practical use
      7. The laws of perspective and optics
      8. Alchemy and astrology
      9. Voyages of discovery
        1. Travelers' accounts of foreign lands
        2. Attacking the authority of the ancients
  3. The Copernican Revolution
    1. Medieval science
      1. Authority of the ancients: Aristotle and Ptolemy
        1. Heavenly bodies orbit in a hierarchy of spheres
        2. Heavens and earth composed of different matter
        3. The "quintessence" (the ether)
        4. Earth, air, fire, and water
        5. The "prime mover"
    2. Late Middle Ages developments
      1. Ptolemaic system did not conform to observations
      2. Retrograde motion
      3. Roman calendar out of alignment with movement of heavenly bodies
        1. The "problem" of Easter and other holy days
    3. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
      1. Renaissance Man
      2. Ptolemaic system had become too messy
      3. Copernican system
        1. The earth moved and was not the center of the planetary system
        2. The earth rotated on its axis and orbited the sun
      4. Believed he had restored a pure understanding of God's plan but was troubled by its implications
      5. New problems and inconsistencies
      6. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)
  4. Tycho's Observations and Kepler's Laws
    1. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
      1. Born into the Danish nobility
      2. A champion of observation
      3. Observed the appearance of a new star (nova) in 1572
      4. Built his own observatory
      5. Tycho not a Copernican
        1. Planets orbited the sun, the whole of which orbited a stationary earth
      6. Court astronomer to Rudolph II at Prague
    2. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
      1. Served as Tycho's assistant
      2. Everything had been created according to mathematical laws
        1. Mathematics as the language of God
        2. Mathematical perfection and musical harmonies
      3. Three laws of planetary motion
        1. Planets travel in elliptical orbits
        2. Speed of the planets vary with their distance from the sun
        3. Magnetic forces keep the planets in orbital motion
      4. Cosmographic Mystery (1596)
      5. New Astronomy or Celestial Physics (1609)
      6. The Harmonies of the World (1619)
      7. Broke down the distinctions between the heavens and the earth
  5. New Heavens, New Earth, and Worldly Politics: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
    1. Galileo the man
      1. A witty and persuasive writer (wrote in Latin and Italian)
      2. A popularizer of the non-Aristotelian approach to science
      3. Impatient with those who opposed him
      4. A new relationship between religion and science
      5. Controversy and the collision course with the Church
    2. The telescope
      1. Built his own telescope in 1610
      2. Observed the features of the moon, the moons of Jupiter, and sun spots
      3. A challenge to heavenly perfection
      4. The Starry Messenger (1610)
    3. The need for a patron
      1. Disliked power of university authorities
      2. Turned to princely courts
      3. Took a position as tutor to the Medicis
    4. Conflict with the Church
      1. A Dominican monk denounced Galileo's ideas as a dangerous deviation
      2. Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina de Medici (1615)
        1. One can be a sincere Copernican and a Catholic
        2. Understanding the physical world is best left to the natural philosopher
      3. 1616: the Inquisition declares heretical the proposition that the earth moves
        1. Copernicus's De Revolutionibus is placed on the Index of Forbidden Books
      4. A Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632)
        1. Inquisition banned the book
        2. Galileo ordered to stand trial in 1633
        3. Recanted his beliefs and placed under house arrest for life
    5. The legacy
      1. The theory of inertia
      2. Law of falling bodies
      3. Two New Sciences (1638)
      4. Combined discovery, observation, experiment, and mathematics
      5. Suggested universal laws of motion
      6. The new science moves out of Italy to northwest Europe
  6. Methods for a New Philosophy: Bacon and Descartes
    1. The need for a scientific method
    2. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
      1. New confidence in the potential of human thought
      2. Lord Chancellor to James I
      3. The "ancients" and "moderns"
      4. Separation of scientific investigation from philosophical argument
      5. The inductive method
        1. Combining evidence from observations to draw general conclusions
        2. Cooperation between researchers
        3. "Useful" knowledge
      6. Great Instauration (1620)
      7. The New Atlantis (1626)
        1. Solomon's House
    3. René Descartes (1596-1650)
      1. An intellectually restless man
      2. The Discourse on Method (1637)
        1. Began as an essay on optics, geometry, and meteorology
        2. Systematic doubt of everything
        3. Cogito ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am")
        4. The thinking person exists, reason exists, God exists
      3. The deductive method
        1. A "fresh start for knowledge"
        2. Proceeds logically from one certainty to another
        3. Mathematical thought an expression of the highest standards of reason
      4. A mechanical philosophy
        1. Nature as machine
        2. Rejected the medieval distinction between the works of man and those of nature
        3. Toward a new conception of matter
        4. Nature and natural laws
  7. The Power of Method and the Force of Curiosity: Seventeenth-Century Experimenters
    1. The Cartesians
      1. Mostly France and Holland
      2. Mathematics and logic
      3. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
        1. Probability theory
        2. Theology
      4. Christian Huygens (1629-1695)
        1. The problem of impact and orbital motion
      5. Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
        1. Applied geometry to ethics
    2. The Baconians
      1. Began with practical research
      2. Sought empirical laws based on evidence
      3. William Harvey (1578-1657)
        1. The circulation of blood
        2. Dissected live animals
      4. Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
        1. Boyle's law
      5. Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
        1. Introduced the microscope
        2. The cellular structure of plants
    3. God as clockmaker
    4. Science, society, and the state
      1. The Royal Society (charter granted 1662)
        1. Committed to experiment and collaborative work
        2. Serving political and intellectual purposes
        3. A common sense of purpose
        4. Philosophical Transactions
        5. Reached out to professional scholars across Europe
      2. French Academy of Sciences (1666)
      3. A state-sponsored framework for scientific endeavor
      4. Easing the exchange of information and theories
      5. Women and science
        1. Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673)
        2. Maria Winkelmann (1670-1720)
        3. Refused admission to Berlin Academy of Science
      6. Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717)
        1. Studied entomology
  8. "And All Was Light": Isaac Newton, 1643-1727
    1. The culmination of the Scientific Revolution
    2. Newton the man
      1. Born to a family of small landowners
      2. Studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (stayed thirty-five years)
      3. A reclusive, secretive, and obsessive man
    3. Newton the scientist
      1. Optics
        1. Used prisms to demonstrate that light was composed of different colored rays
      2. Mathematics
        1. Integral and differential calculus
      3. Gravity
        1. The falling apple
      4. Reflective telescope
      5. Elected to the Royal Society (1672)
      6. Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy)
        1. Published in 1687 (prompted by Edmund Halley)
        2. A long and difficult work
        3. Gravitation was a universal force that could be expressed mathematically
        4. Built on the work of Galileo, Kepler, Boyle, Descartes, and Hooke
        5. A single, descriptive account of mass and motion
        6. The laws of gravitation
      7. The General Scholium (1713)— answered objections to the Principia
    4. Newton's legacy
      1. Certainty and objectivity lay in the precise mathematical characterization of phenomena
      2. Popularization of Newton by John Locke
      3. Buried at Westminster Abbey (Pope's couplet)
      4. Voltaire spread Newtonian ideas to France
  9. Transformations: Science and Cultural Change
    1. Science and modernity
    2. Science as a justification for Western expansion of empire
    3. Observations
      1. Science and elite knowledge
      2. The authority of the ancients did not disappear quickly
      3. Science did not subvert religion
      4. Newton as a transitional figure between the past and the future
    4. New answers to fundamental questions
    5. Science and scientific institutions
    6. The purpose and practice of science
    7. The role of mathematics
  10. Conclusion