Chapter Study Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. Slowing internal expansion
    2. New maritime trade routes
    3. The "Atlantic Mediterranean"
    4. By 1600, Europe was a global power
  2. The Mongols
    1. The rise of the Mongol empire
      1. Nomadic peoples of Central Asian steppes
      2. Highly accomplished cavalry soldiers
      3. Chingiz (Genghis) Khan (1162-1227)— "the oceanic ruler"
        1. United various Mongol tribes
        2. Built up a large military force
        3. Westward expansion
          1. Incorporated Tashkent, Samarkand, and Bukhara
      4. Mongol horde conquered southern Russia (c. 1240)
      5. Battle of Liegnitz (1241)—extent of westward expansion
      6. Mongol forces withdraw from eastern Europe
      7. Timur the Lame or Tamerlane (1336-1405)
      8. Mongol successes
        1. Size, speed, and training of cavalry
        2. Intimidating savagery
        3. Adapted administrative traditions of their subjects
        4. Tolerant of other religious beliefs
    2. Europe, the Mongols, and the Far East
      1. Mongol control of caravan routes from China to the Black Sea
      2. Encouraged contact with European traders
      3. The Silk Road
        1. Used by Europeans after the establishment of the Mongol empire
        2. Niccolo, Maffeo, and Marco Polo
          1. The Travels of Marco Polo
          2. Fired the imagination of his contemporaries
        3. Genoese most active in trade along the Silk Road
      4. Genoese abandon Tabriz (1344)
      5. Mongols besieged Genoese colony at Caffa, crippling commerce on the Black Sea (1346)
      6. Black Death passed on from the Mongols to the Genoese
      7. Westerners excluded from China (1368)
  3. The Rise of the Ottoman Empire
    1. General characteristics
      1. Initially a nomadic people
      2. Nominal Muslims
      3. Principal beneficiaries of Mongol conquest
    2. The conquest of Constantinople
      1. Ottoman dynasty established as the leading family among Anatolian border lords
      2. Extended their control all the way to the Danube (1370)
      3. Ottomans attack Constantinople (1396, 1402)
        1. Mehmet II conquers Constantinople (1453)
        2. An enormous psychological shock to Europe
        3. Minor economic impact
          1. Europe got most of its spices and silks through Venice
      4. Effects
        1. Ottoman conquest did not force the Portuguese to establish new trade routes
        2. Ottomans attempt to control Egyptian grain trade
        3. Modest effects on Europe
        4. New wealth poured into Ottoman society
        5. Ottomans became a naval power in eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea
    3. War, slavery, and social advancement
      1. Conquest created the need for a larger Ottoman army and administration
        1. Army and administration composed of slaves
      2. Slaves were critical to Ottoman upper class
        1. Provided status
        2. Household servants and administrators
      3. Slaves obtained through conquest and from the Ottoman empire itself
      4. Some people preferred to live as slaves than as poor peasants
      5. Child slavery—helping to pay the child tax
      6. Little social stigma associated with slavery
      7. Muslims prohibited from enslaving other Muslims
        1. Elite positions in Ottoman government held by slaves
        2. Paradox—Muslims were excluded from social and political advancement
      8. Power in the Ottoman empire open to men of talent and ability
        1. Provided that they were slaves and not Muslims by birth
        2. Commerce and business also in the hands of non-Muslims
        3. Jews found a welcome refuge from the persecutions of medieval Europe
    4. Religious controversy
      1. Ottoman sultans were orthodox Sunni Muslims
        1. Supported religious and legal pronouncements of Islamic scholarly schools
      2. Ottomans captured Medina and Mecca (1516)
      3. Ottoman ruler adopted title of caliph (1538)
        1. Became legitimate successor to Prophet Muhammad
      4. Tolerant toward non-Muslims
      5. Organized the major religious groups into legal units (the millet)
        1. Religious self-government
      6. Protected and promoted Greek Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople
      7. Principal religious conflicts were with Shi'ite Muslim dynasty in Persia
    5. The Ottomans and Europe
      1. Holy wars?
      2. Western crusader army destroyed at Nicopolis (1396)
      3. Besieged Vienna (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries)
      4. Battle of Lepanto (1571)
        1. Victory for combined forces of Habsburgs and Venice
        2. Battle did not put an end to Ottoman influence in the eastern Mediterranean
  4. Mediterranean Colonialism
    1. Motives for westward expansion
      1. African gold trade
      2. Growth of European colonial empires in the western Mediterranean Sea
    2. Silver shortages and the search for African gold
      1. African gold trade was not new
      2. Catalan and Genoese merchants traded woolen cloth for gold at Tunis
      3. Gold needed because of a serious silver shortage
      4. Balance-of-payments problem
        1. Too much silver flowing east in the spice trade
        2. Could not be replaced
        3. Gold as alternative for large transactions
    3. Mediterranean empires: Catalunya, Venice, and Genoa
      1. Catalunya
        1. Colonized Majorca, Ibiza, Minorca, Sicily, and Sardinia
        2. Expropriation and extermination of native population (usually Muslim)
        3. Economic concessions to attract settlers
        4. Reliance on slave labor
      2. Venice
        1. Venetian colonization controlled by city's rulers
        2. Concentrated in the eastern Mediterranean
        3. Spices and silks
      3. Genoa
        1. Focused on western Mediterranean
        2. Cloth, hides, grain, and timber
        3. More informal and family-based
        4. More closely integrated with native societies of North Africa, Spain, and the Black Sea
        5. Moved toward larger, fuller-bodied sailing ships
    4. From the Mediterranean to the Atlantic
      1. Italian merchants sailed through Straits of Gibraltar to the North Sea (c. 1270)
      2. Canary Islands as "jumping-off point," especially for the Portuguese
    5. The technology of ships and navigation
      1. The Portuguese caravel
      2. Changed to larger caravel with lateen sail
        1. Could sail against the wind
        2. Required smaller crews
      3. Navigation
        1. Quadrants in use by 1450s
        2. Astrolabes
        3. Compasses
        4. Could not determine longitude until the eighteenth century
        5. Dead reckoning
        6. Maps and navigational charts (rutters and routiers)
        7. Portolani
    6. Portugal, Africa, and the sea route to India
      1. Chronology of Portuguese colonization
        1. Captured North African port of Ceuta (1415)
        2. Colonization of Madeira, the Canaries, and the Azores (1420s and 1430s)
        3. Cape Verde Islands (1440s)
        4. Collection of gold and slaves for export to Portugal (1444)
        5. Exploration of the Gulf of Guinea (1470s)
        6. Portuguese reached the Congo river (1483)
        7. Bartholomeu Dias rounded Cape of Storms/Cape of Good Hope (1488)
        8. Vasco de Gama rounded the Cape and crossed the Indian Ocean to Calicutt (1497-98)
        9. Portuguese reach Malacca (1511)
        10. The Spice Islands and China (1515)
      2. By 1500, Portuguese sailing ships sailed regularly to India
      3. Built forts along the western Indian coastline
      4. Total domination of the spice trade (1520s)
    7. Artillery and empire
      1. Increasing sophistication of artillery
      2. Larger caravels—more effective artillery pieces could be mounted on them
      3. Floating artillery platforms
      4. Battle of Div (1509)
        1. Portuguese defeated Indian and Ottoman naval force
    8. Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)
      1. His central place in European exploration has been debunked
      2. Motives before 1480s
        1. Crusading ambitions against Muslims
        2. Establish direct links with sources of African gold production
        3. Desire to colonize Atlantic islands
        4. Slavery
        5. The myth of Prester John
      3. Neither the architect nor visionary of Portuguese exploration
      4. Main goal was to intercept trade in African gold at its source
    9. Atlantic colonization and the growth of slavery
      1. Major slave markets were in Muslim hands
      2. Few early-fifteenth-century slaves were Africans
      3. Most were European Christians (Poles, Ukrainians, Greeks, and Bulgarians)
      4. Mid-fifteenth-century Lisbon as major slave market for enslaved Africans
      5. One hundred fifty thousand African slaves imported into Europe by 1505
        1. Regarded as status symbols
        2. Slaves mostly used in sugar mills (Madeira and the Canaries)
  5. Europe Encounters a New World
    1. Spanish motives: sailing west to beat the Portuguese
      1. Discovery of Azores and Canary Islands
      2. Belief that the Atlantic was dotted with islands all the way to China
    2. The discovery of a New World
      1. The Vikings in Newfoundland, Labrador, and perhaps New England (c. 1000)
    3. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
      1. Brought back no Asian spices and little gold
    4. Amerigo Vespucci (1451-1512)
    5. The disappointment of the New World
      1. Spain could not hope to beat Portugal with this land mass between Europe and Asia
    6. Vasco Núñez Balboa (1475-1517) viewed the Pacific Ocean (1513)
    7. Magellan's crew circumnavigated the globe (1522)
    8. The Spanish conquest of America
      1. The New World perhaps had great stores of gold just waiting to be picked up
      2. The conquistador
      3. Hernando Cortés (1485-1547) subdued the Aztecs in Mexico (1519-1521)
      4. Francisco Pizarro subdued the Incas in South America (1533)
    9. The profits of empire in the New World
      1. Cortés and Pizarro as plunderers
      2. First gold deposits discovered in Hispaniola
        1. One million natives in 1492—five hundred in 1538
        2. Cattle ranching (Mexico)
        3. Sugar production (Caribbean)
          1. Imported African slaves
          2. Sugar plantations fell into the hands of a few wealthy planters
      3. Gold mining as the initial lure
      4. Silver the most lucrative export
        1. The silver deposits of Potosí (Bolivia)
        2. Profits went directly to Spanish crown
        3. Slave labor
        4. New mining techniques
        5. Ten million ounces of silver per year arrived in Spain (1590s)
      5. Effects of the influx of silver
        1. Exacerbated European inflation
        2. The Price Revolution
        1. Affected Spain most acutely
        2. Spanish prices doubled twice between 1500 and 1600
        3. Undermined the competitiveness of Spanish industries
        4. Spanish economy collapsed (1620s and 1630s)
      6. Less silver flowed into Europe but prices continued to rise
        1. Price of grain in 1650 was five to six times its level in 1500
        2. Social dislocation and misery
        3. Declining standard of living
  6. Conclusion
    1. Colonization
    2. Portugal and Spain
    3. The rise of French, Dutch, and English empires