Chapter Study Outline

  1. The Making of Medieval Monarchies
    1. The Norman conquest of England
      1. 1066-—feudalism first appears in England
      2. William the Conqueror (1027-1087)
        1. Rewarded his Norman followers with grants of English land
        2. Exercised a variety of public rights not derived from feudalism
        3. All landowners owed loyalty to the king-—a centralized feudalism
        4. Represented a fusion of Carolingian public power with new feudal structures of power and landholding
    2. Feudal monarchy in England
      1. The rise of administrative kingship
      2. Henry I (1068-1135)
        1. Created the clerks of the Exchequer
        2. Strengthened local administration
        3. Traveling circuit judges
    3. The reign of Henry II (1133-1189)
      1. Already the ruler of Normandy, Anjou, Maine, and Aquitaine
      2. Orders juries of local men to report under oath every violation of the laws
      3. Origin of the grand jury
      4. System of "writs"
      5. Tried to reform operation of Church courts
      6. Thomas Becket
        1. Archbishop of Canterbury
        2. The Constitutions of Clarendon (1164)
          1. Clerics convicted of serious crimes to be handed over to royal court for sentencing
        3. Becket objected
          1. Fled to France
          2. Murdered upon his return to England
      7. Henry forced to surrender several of his claims (e.g., the right to sentence criminal clerics)
      8. Richard the Lionhearted (1157-1199)
    4. The reign of King John and the Magna Carta
      1. Less capable military leader
      2. Lost nearly all Angevin lands
      3. Devoted his reign to raising money to regain French lands
      4. Pressed feudal rights to their limit
        1. Fined the nobility
        2. Heavy taxation on the county
      5. Failed military expedition to France (1214)
      6. The magnates rebel
      7. Magna Carta (1215)
        1. The king must respect the traditional rights of his vassals
        2. Taxation could not be raised by the crown without the consent of the barons
      8. Parliament
        1. Emerged gradually after 1300
        2. A consultative body
        3. A political as well as financial and judicial body
    5. Feudal monarchy in France
      1. Slow government centralization-—faced greater problems
        1. Carolingian institutions had collapsed
      2. The Capetian dynasty (987-1328)
      3. The reinvention of the French kingdom
    6. The growth of royal power in France
      1. Louis VI, "the Fat" (1078-1137)
        1. Consolidated royal control over the Île-de-France by subduing "robber barons"
        2. Agriculture, trade, and intellectual life could flourish at Paris
      2. Louis VII (1137-1181)
      3. Philip Augustus (1165-1223)
        1. Undermined John's control over French territories
        2. John refused to submit to pressure
        3. A war of conquest
          1. Philip retained Angevin territories
        4. An effective system of local administration
          1. Superimposed new royal officials (baillis) over local government practice
          2. The baillis had full judicial, administrative, and military authority
      4. Louis IX, "Saint Louis" (1226-1270)
        1. Extended administrative pattern further
        2. The epitome of thirteenth-century kingship
    7. Germany
      1. Frederick I, Barbarossa (1152-1190)
        1. Family of Staufen or Hohenstaufen ("high Staufen")
        2. Called his realm the Holy Roman Empire
        1. A universal empire blessed by God
      2. Tried to rule in cooperation with German princes
      3. Compromised with Lombard League and the papacy
      4. Imperial court at Mainz
      5. Died during the Third Crusade
      6. Succeeded by his son, Henry VI
      7. Frederick II (1216-1250)
        1. Spoke Arabic, Latin, German, French, and Italian
        2. Patron of learning
        3. Supported territorial princes of Germany
        4. Enforced imperial rights in Italy
        5. With his death, German rule fell to several hundred German princes
    8. Iberia
      1. Highly regionalized
      2. Successful reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims
      3. Four major Christian kingdoms: Navarre, Portugal, the combined kingdom of Aragon and Catalunya, and Castile
  2. The Dominion of the Church
    1. Development of church or canon law
      1. Gratian (fl. twelfth century)
        1. The Decretum or The Concord of Discordant Canons
          1. Claimed ecclesiastical jurisdiction over marriage, inheritance, and bequests
        2. Cases in canon law courts increased
        3. The importance of legal expertise
    2. The reign of Innocent III (1198-1216)
      1. Elected pope at thirty-seven
      2. Studied theology and canon law
      3. Goal was to unify Christendom under papal hegemony
        1. Never questioned the right of the king to rule in the secular sphere
        2. Would discipline kings whenever they sinned
      4. Founded the Papal States
      5. Engineered the triumph of Frederick II
      6. Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
        1. Defined central dogmas of the Christian faith
        2. Acknowledged papal supremacy
        3. Established free primary schools in all major cities
        4. Required non-Christians to wear distinctive clothing
    3. Popes of the thirteenth century
      1. Popes after Innocent began to appear more like ordinary, acquisitive rulers
      2. Conflicts with Frederick
      3. Popes enhanced power of Church government
        1. Asserted the right to name candidates for ecclesiastical positions
        2. Controlled curriculum at the University of Paris
        3. Political misuse of the institution of the Crusades (against Frederick)
        4. Loss of spiritual prestige
    4. Decline of the papal monarchy
      1. Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
        1. The growth of national monarchies
        2. Disputes with English and French kings
          1. Clerical taxation
          2. Papacy moves from Rome to Avignon (1316-1377)
      2. Balance of power shifted toward the state and away from the Church
        1. Pious Christians looked to the state for campaigns of moral and spiritual improvement
  3. Spiritual Awakenings and Challenges
    1. European religious revival
    2. Cistercians and Carthusians
      1. Founding of new orders
      2. Cistercians
        1. Followed the Benedictine Rule in a most austere manner
        2. Founded new monasteries away from civilization
        3. Shunned unnecessary church decoration
        4. Abandoned Cluniac stress on an elaborate liturgy
        5. Contemplation, prayer, manual labor
      3. Changing nature of religious belief and devotion
        1. Shift away from the cult of saints
        2. Emphasis on worship of Jesus and veneration of the Virgin Mary
        3. Veneration of relics replaced by concentration on the Eucharist
          1. Transubstantiation
          2. The host elevated for all to see
          3. The identification with Christ
    3. The cult of the Virgin Mary
      1. Patron saint of the Cistercians
      2. Notre Dame ("Our Lady") cathedrals-— Paris, Chartres, Rheims, and elsewhere
      3. Mary as intercessor with Jesus for human salvation
      4. Set a woman in an honored place in the Christian religion
    4. Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
      1. Religious visions, inspired by God
      2. Wrote Latin prose
      3. Composed religious songs
    5. The challenge of popular heresy
      1. Difficult to control lay enthusiasm
      2. Had the Church lost its idealistic goals?
      3. The "miraculous" powers of the priest
      4. The Cathars (Albigensians)
        1. Strongest in northern Italy and southern France
        2. Believed all matter was evil
        3. Holiness required extreme asceticism
        4. Dualistic religion
        5. Role of noblewomen in the spread of Catharism
      5. The Waldensians
        1. Originated by Peter Waldo at Lyons
        2. Imitated the life of Christ and the apostles
        3. Translated and studied the Gospels
        4. Dedicated themselves to poverty and preaching
        5. An alternative church?
      6. Innocent's reaction
        1. Crushing disobedience
        2. Supporting idealistic religious groups
        3. A crusade against the Albigensians
        4. The Inquisition (torture first used in 1252)
    6. Franciscans and Dominicans
      1. Imitated the life of Jesus while wandering the European countryside in small groups
      2. The Dominicans
        1. Founded by Saint Dominic (1170-1221)
        2. Approved by Innocent (1216)
        3. Dedicated to fighting heresy
        4. The conversion of Jews and Muslims
        5. Preaching and public debate-— intellectually oriented
        6. Heretics best controlled by legal procedure
      3. The Franciscans
        1. Founded by Saint Francis of Assisi (1181-1226)
          1. Gave away all his property
          2. Committed to an "emotional" religion
          3. Imitated the life of Christ
          4. Indifference toward doctrine, form, or ceremony
          5. Revered the Eucharist
        2. Granted approval by Innocent (1209)
        3. Spread of the movement
        4. Specialized in revivalist outdoor preaching
      4. Consequences
        1. Combated heresy
        2. Helped preach papal crusades
        3. Active missionary work
        4. Power by example
        5. Not completely successful in converting the heretic
    7. Jews and Christians
      1. Church did little to condemn or contain anti-Semitism
      2. Popular anti-Semitic myths
        1. Jews were the agents of Satan
        2. Jews killed Christian children
      3. Thirteenth-century kings begin expelling Jews from their kingdoms
  4. The Medieval Intellectual Revival
    1. The growth of schools
      1. Antecedents-—Charlemagne reorganized cathedral and monastic schools
      2. Twelfth-century monasteries abandon practice of educating outsiders
      3. Cathedral schools-—main centers of European education
      4. Broadening of the curriculum (twelfth century)
      5. Growing demand for trained officials
        1. Knowledge of Latin grammar required
        2. Classical Roman authors
        3. Philosophy
      6. New schools
        1. Education for those not intended to join the clergy
        2. Children of the upper classes
        3. Future notaries, merchants, or estate officials
        4. Schools became independent of ecclesiastical control
        5. Nonreligious lines of inquiry
    2. Scholasticism
      1. A new worldview-—highly systematic and respectful of authority
      2. The theory and practice of reconciling classical philosophy with Christian faith
      3. Peter Abelard (1079-1143)
        1. Taught at Paris
        2. The first intellectual?
        3. Adept at logic
        4. The seduction of Heloise (1118)
        5. The Story of My Calamities
        6. Sic et Non (Yes and No)
          1. Gathered 150 statements from the church fathers
          2. Using careful study to arrive at truth
          3. Abelard's method-—Socratic questioning
          4. Treated theology as a science, applying to it the laws of logic
          5. The harmony of reason and faith
        7. Peter Lombard (c. 1100-1164)
          1. Book of Sentences
          2. Raised theological questions in consequential order
          3. Answered from both sides of the question
    3. The rise of universities
      1. Originally offered instruction beyond the cathedral school-—advanced liberal arts
      2. Advanced liberal arts, law, medicine, and theology
      3. First university at Bologna-—known for legal studies
      4. University of Paris -—known for theological and philosophical studies
        1. Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
          1. Attracted students from across Europe
      5. "University" originally meant a corporation or guild of students or teachers
      6. University gradually came to mean an educational institution with a school of liberal arts
      7. Thirteenth-century schools: Oxford, Cambridge, Montpellier, Salamanca, and Naples
      8. Universities as student corporations
        1. Bologna
        2. Students hired and paid teachers
      9. Universities as teacher corporations
        1. Paris
          1. Arts, theology, law, and medicine
      10. Modern degree system-—B.A., M.A., Ph.D.
        1. Emphasis on abstract analysis and disputation
      11. Student life
        1. Town and gown
        2. Study was intense
        3. The value of authority
        4. Rote memorization
        5. Public disputation
    4. The recovery of classical learning
      1. Greek and Arabic works given Latin translations
      2. Burst of translating activity centered in Spain and Italy
      3. Rediscovery of Aristotle, Euclid, Galen, and Ptolemy
      4. The scholastic method
      5. Aristotle as "the Philosopher"
    5. The writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
      1. Leading theologian at Paris
      2. Early Dominican education
      3. Faith could be defended by reason
      4. Nature complements grace
      5. Harmonized Greek philosophy with Christian theology
      6. Summa Contra Gentiles and Summa Theologica
      7. There are mysteries of faith that cannot be explained by reason
    6. The pinnacle of Western medieval thought
      1. The receptivity to new ideas
      2. The authority of a text was not the sole judge in arguments
      3. Exalting the dignity of human nature as a divine creation
  5. Courts, Cities, and Cathedrals
    1. Chivalry and courtly love
      1. Knightly code of values
      2. A social ideology of values and identification
      3. Knighthood and nobility
        1. An amalgamation of values and goals
      4. Thirteenth-century chivalry-—an ideology of a social class
        1. Dividing those who were of the nobility and those who were not
        2. The rules of battle
      5. Cult of courtly love
        1. Women as objects of male veneration
        2. Courtly love as refined love
        3. Noble women were courted, peasant women could be taken by force
      6. The literature of courtly love
      7. The changing role of noble women
    2. Urban opportunities and challenges
      1. Towns and cultural and economic centers
      2. Places for ambitious men
      3. Urban governance likely to be run by oligarchs
      4. Opportunities for individuals; emergence of guilds
        1. Attempt to preserve monopolies and limit competition
        2. In addition to economic benefits, important social, political, and cultural institutions
        1. Looked after their members
    3. The blossoming of literature, art, and music
      1. The Goliards
      2. Wandering scholars
      3. Parodied the liturgy
      4. Rejection of Christian asceticism
    4. Vernacular literature
      1. Song of Roland (French)
      2. Song of the Nibelungs (German)
      3. Poem of the Cid (Spanish)
    5. Troubadours' poetry and courtly romances
      1. Sophisticated style
      2. Theme of courtly love
      3. Romances
        1. Long, narrative poems
        2. Written in the vernacular, Romance languages
        3. Chrétien de Troyes-—wrote Arthurian romances
        4. Wolfram von Eschenbach, Parzival
        5. Gottfried von Strassburg, Tristan
      4. The fabliaux or verse fables
        1. Derived from Aesop
        2. Significant reflection of growing worldliness
    6. The Divine Comedy
      1. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
        1. Native of Florence
        2. Mastered religious, philosophical, and literary knowledge of his time
        3. Familiar with the Bible, the church fathers, Virgil, Cicero, and Boethius
        4. Expelled from Florence (1301)
      2. The Divine Comedy
        1. Narrative in Italian rhyming verse
        2. Poet's journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven
        3. Virgil as the poet's guide
        4. Beatrice
        5. Stressed the priority of salvation
        6. Humans have free will
    7. Art and architecture
      1. The Romanesque
        1. Origins in tenth century
        2. Manifesting the majesty of God in stone
        3. Subordinated all architectural details to a uniform system
        4. Stability and permanence
      2. The Gothic
        1. Appeared in twelfth and thirteenth centuries
        2. Intricate building style
        3. Pointed arches, groined and ribbed vaults, flying buttresses
        4. Lighter and loftier construction
        5. Exterior ornamentation
        6. Stained-glass windows
        7. An encyclopedia of medieval knowledge carved in stone