Review Questions

1. The fragmentation of power in the ninth and tenth centuries created a world very different from that of Charlemagne. Describe some of the key changes. What were their causes?
2. The agricultural revolution of the Middle Ages had farreaching economic, social, and political consequences. What were they?
3. The reforming movement with the Church changed the relationship between the papacy and the secular rulers of Christendom. Explain why.
4. The motives behind the Crusades were political as well as religious. Why was this the case?
5. The Crusades had profound effects on western Europe, Byzantium, and Islam, as well as on the relationships among different groups within these societies. In what ways were these three civilizations transformed?

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