Chapter Study Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. Europe in 1000
      1. Shifting balance of power
      2. A weakened Europe and the strength of Byzantine and Islamic civilization
      3. Viking, Hungarian, and Muslim attacks
    2. Europe in 1100
      1. Europe emerging as dominant military, economic, and political power
      2. A Catholic European world
      3. Expansion of European commerce
      4. Urbanization
      5. Economic growth
      6. More powerful governments
      7. Social stratification
  2. The Medieval Agricultural Revolution
    1. Transformations
      1. Technological innovation
      2. Improved climate
      3. New crop-rotation system
      4. Investment in tools, livestock, and mills
    2. Technological advances
      1. Heavy-wheeled plow, horse collars, and harnesses
        1. Better aeration of the soil
        2. Saved labor
      2. Iron horseshoes, the tandem harness, and iron hand tools
      3. Mills
        1. After 1050, a craze in northern European water mills
        2. Windmills introduced in the 1170s
      4. Results
        1. Greater security as Viking, Hungarian, and Muslim attacks decreased
        2. Growing confidence of entrepreneurial peasants and lords
        3. A new profit motive?
        4. Increased European population
        5. Efficient market for goods
    3. Manorialism, serfdom, and agricultural productivity
      1. Changes in patterns of peasant settlement (England, northern Europe, and western Germany)
      2. The development of the manor
      3. Consolidation of individual peasant holdings
      4. The lord of the manor
        1. Dominant role
        2. claimed largest share of peasants' production
        3. Strip farming
        4. Peasant labor services
      5. The peasants
        1. Similar to slaves: worked without pay, paid humiliating fines
        2. Unlike slaves: their obligations were fixed by custom
    4. New crop-rotation systems
      1. Three-field system of crop rotation
      2. Adaptable to wet, fertile soils of northern Europe
      3. Produced higher yields and was insurance against disaster
      4. New types of food (for humans and horses)
      5. Helped spread labor more evenly over the course of the year
    5. Serfdom and the limits of manorialism
      1. Manorialism never predominant across Europe at any one time
      2. Mostly limited to England and parts of France and Germany
  3. The Growth of Towns and Commerce
    1. Agricultural revolution served as foundation for a new commercial revolution
    2. Commerce
      1. By the twelfth century, trade controlled by Venetian, Pisan, and Genoese naval forces
      2. Created an expanding market for Eastern luxury goods
      3. Dominance of Italian trade networks (Constantinople, Alexandria, and the West)
      4. The Champagne fairs
        1. Flemish merchants sold cloth to Italians
        2. Italian merchants sold Eastern spices and silks to the Flemish
      5. Long-distance trade
        1. A risky enterprise
        2. Piracy
      6. Italian merchants develop new commercial methods
        1. Partnership contracts
        2. Double-entry bookkeeping
        3. New credit mechanisms
      7. Commerce and urbanization
    3. Towns
      1. Symbiotic relationship with the countryside
      2. Provided markets for manufactured goods
      3. Specialization in certain enterprises
        1. Paris and Bologna: university towns
        2. Venice, Genoa, Cologne, and London: long-distance trade
        3. Milan, Florence, Ghent, and Bruges: manufactures
  4. Violence and Lordship
    1. New wealth fostered both social mobility and social stratification
    2. Families begin to establish themselves as territorial lords
    3. Protected territories and followers by building castles
      1. Castles begin to dominate the landscape
      2. Serve defensive and offensive role
      3. Dominate the landscape
    4. New lords claim descent from successful Vikings; break from Roman past
    5. Need assistance of warriors to defend their claims of power
      1. Knighthood
        1. A new social order of men of widely varying social rank
        2. A specialized warrior group associated with the nobility
    6. Europe becomes a continent of faux "kingdoms"
      1. Political and military power was in the hand of wealthy landholders
      2. Centralized Europe's growing wealth for themselves
      3. These medieval lords exercised enormous power over property rights, coinage, law, military, and taxation
    7. The problem of feudalism
      1. Feudalism as a highly decentralized political system
      2. Varieties of interpretation
        1. Marxist historiography
        2. Social historians
        3. Legal historians
      3. Military historians
      4. Feudalism defined
        1. A political system in which public powers were exercised by private lords
        2. First took shape in tenth- and eleventh-century France
        3. Justified a hierarchical legal and political order
        4. Vocabulary
          1. Fief: a contract in which something of value was exchanged for service
          2. Vassal: recipient of a fief
          3. Homage: a solemn act in which a vassal becomes "the man" of his lord
        5. Personal relationships of service in return for landholding
    8. A New Feudal Monarchy: England
      1. In 1066 Duke William of Normandy claims to be successor of English king
      2. English people elected Harold king
        1. William defeated Harold at battle of Hastings and took power
      3. William had to subjugate all others who claimed kingship
        1. Asserted kingship by both conquest and imperial succession
        2. Claimed all land of England belonged to him
      4. William rewarded his Norman followers with fiefs taken from English landholders
        1. William received their loyalty and share of their revenues
      5. William exercised many important powers of the state:
        1. Coined money
        2. Collected national land tax
        3. Supervised royal courts
        4. Had right to raise an army
        5. Maintained Anglo-Saxon sheriffs to administer local law
      6. William's exercise of these national powers enabled him to insist on people's loyalty
    9. Struggle for Imperial Power in Germany
      1. No German king could claim rule over large tracts of land
      2. Imperial authority of any ruler bolstered by alliance with the Church
        1. Emperor relied heavily on the Church leadership
      3. In 1056 Henry IV succeeds his father as emperor (six years old). Competition among his advisers leads to broader conflict
        1. German princes attempted to take power from Henry's regents
        2. Hostilities escalated into civil war
        3. New Pope Gregory VII begins to insist no laymen can have influence on the Church; this position would impact Henry's ability to appoint bishops
        4. Gregory allied himself with Henry's enemies and attempted to depose him
        5. Henry was forced to beg the pope for forgiveness and recognize his authority
  5. Religious Reform and Papal Power
    1. Power of the papacy begins to grow in the eleventh century
      1. Independence of local churches had been compromised
      2. Bishops had been co-opted by powerful families
      3. Many popes drastically abused their power and undermined the influence of the papacy
    2. Monastic reform movement
      1. Cluny establishes new type of monastery in Burgundy
        1. Placed monastery under direct protection of the papacy
        2. Recruited wealthy benefactor who sought no control over the monastery
        1. Family gained special spiritual privileges for its generosity
      2. Cluny sponsored the development of several monasteries on this model
      3. All of the monasteries Cluny developed were attached to a mother house; they were not independent. All engaged in same religious rituals
      4. Monastic reforms took place in Germany and England as well with the knowledge of the Christian king
        1. Kings followed Cluny's example; they insisted on poverty, chastity, and obedience and followed same liturgical rights
        2. Cluny's monasteries were more independent; in England and Germany kings appointed the abbots
        3. Provides the foundation for close relationship between church and state in England
      5. Monasticism became the dominant force in Western Christianity
        1. Monasteries had an enormous impact on the piety of the people
        2. Many monasteries maintained parishes that served the spiritual needs of the people
        3. Many monasteries housed relics that were thought to possess protective and curative powers
        4. These relics were collected and displayed at monasteries
          1. Became a way for monasteries to attract attention and generate revenue
    3. Reform of the Papacy
      1. Reform movements in the monasteries begin to have effect on the bishops
      2. Bishops and priests serving in the diocese were secular clergy living similar lives as their parishioners
      3. Abbots often appointed to episcopal office; brought monastic values and beliefs with them
        1. Nonmonastic bishops required to adopt stricter standards of conduct
      4. Influence of these newly empowered bishops grow, reform agenda expands
        1. Attack simony; use ecclesiastical office for personal gain
        2. Movement targeted the structure of the Church
        3. Demand that secular clergy share lifestyle of monks—poverty, chastity, and obedience
        4. Monks and priests developed different priestly lives as a result of different liturgical tasks
          1. Poverty, chastity, and obedience more practical for cloistered monk
          2. Demands of priestly celibacy are unreasonable—deprive parishioners of ministry of the wife
      5. In 1046 Leo IX becomes pope
        1. Issued decrees against simony and clerical marriage
        2. Traveled throughout Continent to ensure reforms being carried out
        3. Vision of the Church as a feudal monarchy
          1. Limit the authority of other office holders in the Church
          2. Met serious opposition from within the Church; needed the support of local rulers
          3. Henry III insulated the pope from local Roman nobility
          4. Henry IV, his heir, was not as supportive; attempted to install his own pope
          5. New pope, Nicholas II, created college of cardinals as policy advisers and as overseers of papal elections
      6. Investiture Conflict
        1. Gregory VII elected pope in 1073; initially has good relations with Henry IV in Germany
        2. Conflict in 1075 between Gregory and Henry over right to appoint bishops
        3. Henry wanted the political benefit of appointing bishops; for Gregory it was simony
        4. Gregory's reform movement sought to both liberate Church from worldly control and power and expand its power
        5. Gregory understood this to be not just a policy matter but a matter of "church dogma"
        6. Henry refused to accept Gregory's authority and appointed archbishop of Milan
        7. Gregory excommunicated several of his advisers
        8. Henry renounced Gregory; Gregory excommunicated Henry
        9. Gregory attached deposition from throne with excommunication
        10. Gregory attempted to overthrow Henry; Gregory ultimately exiled by Henry
        11. Results in Concordat of Worms whereby emperors forbidden from investing prelates with religious symbols of office; allowed to give them temporal authority
  6. Crusading Causes and Outcomes
    1. Abbasid decline
    2. Muslim pressure on the eastern borders of the empire
    3. The Byzantine Revival
      1. A changed position
      2. Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius convert Balkan Slavs to Orthodox Christianity
      3. A new written language—Old Church Slavonic (Cyrillic alphabet)
      4. Annexation of Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia
      5. Military and commercial alliance with the western Rus
      6. Eastern conquests (930s and 970s)
        1. Greatly increased power of local noble families
        2. New centers of power outside Constantinople
        3. Tensions and rivalries
    4. The invasion of the Turks
      1. Venice, Pisa, and Genoa emerge as dominant traders in the eastern Mediterranean
      2. Growing power of Fatimid Egypt
      3. The Seljuk Turks move into Asia Minor
        1. Battle of Manzikert (1071)
        2. The Turks now set to seize all of Anatolia
      4. Alexius Comnenus (1048-1118)
        1. Appeals to Pope Urban II for troops to repel the Turks
    5. The First Crusade
      1. Pope Urban's appeal
        1. Bring the Orthodox Church into communion with the papacy
        2. Embarrass the German emperor, Henry IV
        3. Achieving peace at home
        4. Goal of Jerusalem
      2. 1095—calls the First Crusade at Clermont
      3. One hundred thousand men, women, and children march to Constantinople
      4. Motives
        1. Win new lands
        2. Prospect of adventure
        3. Religious—a mission from God
          1. Pilgrimage
          2. Freed from punishment in purgatory
          3. Plenary indulgences
      5. Assaults against Jewish communities (Mainz, Worms, Speyer, and Cologne)
      6. Byzantium seen as an obstacle to recovery of Jerusalem for Christianity
      7. Crusaders capture Antioch and most of Syria (1098)
      8. Crusaders take Jerusalem, slaughtering its inhabitants (1099)
      9. Furthered the decline of Byzantine commerce
    6. The later Crusades
      1. Crusaders did not wish to interfere with trade routes
      2. For the Muslims, the loss of Jerusalem was a religious affront
      3. The Second Crusade
        1. Syrian principalities recaptured by the Muslims
        2. Christian warriors suffered crushing defeats
        3. Muslim leader Saladin recaptures Jerusalem (1187)
      4. The Third Crusade
        1. Frederick Barbarossa (c. 1123-1190)
        2. Philip Augustus (1165-1223)
        3. Richard the Lionhearted (1157-1199)
        4. A failed campaign
      5. The Fourth Crusade
        1. Summoned by Innocent III
        2. A disaster for the crusading armies
          1. Civil war in Germany
          2. War between England and France
          3. Depleted ranks of crusading armies
    7. The consequences of the Crusades
      1. Disaster for Byzantium
      2. Modest effect on the Islamic world
      3. Trade between Islam and the West continued
      4. The West learned new technologies of fortification
      5. The Muslims learned about siege warfare
      6. The crystallization of Christian and Islamic doctrines of the holy war against the infidel
      7. Western Europe
        1. Difficult to assess
        2. Western expansionism
        3. Could not maintain colonies
        4. Greatest gains went to the republics of Venice and Genoa
        5. "Cutting out the Islamic middle man"
        6. The crusading ideal
  7. Islamic Culture and Christian Europe
    1. Number of positive outcomes from interaction between Latin West and Islamic world
      1. Interaction with Muslims has significant impact on European learning, literature, music, and art
      2. Transformation in Christian theology
        1. Averroes Ibn Rushd advanced study of Aristotelian logic
      3. Islamic world significantly advanced in medicine and science
        1. Confirmed Hellenic findings that earth revolves around sun
        2. Discovered contagious nature of TB, noted that disease could be spread through contaminated water and soil
        3. Avicenna wrote Canons of Medicine; seminal text for years
        4. Significant developments in math; develop decimal arithmetic; develop accounting systems on which trade and commerce are based
      4. Islamic Literature and Art
        1. Great significance of poetry in Islamic arts
        2. Most significant accomplishments in arts and architecture