Chapter Study Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. Rome as bridge between Mediterranean and ancient Near East
    2. A distinctive civilization
    3. The "mission" of the Romans
    4. Geographic scope of Rome
  2. Early Italy and the Roman Monarchy
    1. Geographical influences
      1. Land rich enough to be attractive
      2. Difficult to defend
    2. The Etruscans
      1. Non-Indo-Europeans
      2. Etruscan confederacy
      3. Independent city-states
      4. Historically mysterious group
      5. Language never full translated
    3. The Etruscan legacy
      1. The arch and vault
      2. Women of high status; families traced through female line
      3. Women participated in public life
      4. Engaged in gladiatorial combat
      5. Etruscan mythology contributed to Virgil's Aeneid and the story of Romulus and Remus
    4. Greek settlements and influences
      1. Greeks arrive as early as eighth century B.C.E.
      2. Romans derive their alphabet from the Greek alphabet
      3. Romans borrowed many Greek religious beliefs
      4. Romans downplayed this and emphasized Trojan origins
  3. The Rise of Rome
    1. Latins cross the Alps into Italy around 2000 B.C.E.
    2. Rome founded as early as the tenth century B.C.E.; Romans claim city founded in 753 B.C.E.
    3. Rome develops along Tiber River
    4. Develops into major commercial port and crossroads of trade
    5. Emergence of the concept of the "Latin Right"
    6. Early government monarchical with patriarchal king
    7. Not an absolute monarchy; subject to Council of Elders
    8. Seven kings said to have ruled in succession
  4. The Early Republic
    1. Constant warfare to acquire land
      1. Etruscan territories to the north
      2. Greek poleis in the south
    2. Incorporation of conquered peoples
      1. Did not impose heavy burdens on conquered peoples
      2. Conquered people had to contribute soldiers to the Roman army
      3. Strong emphasis on agriculture
    3. The government of the early Republic
      1. Slow political evolution
      2. Substituted two consuls for the king
        1. Consuls had full executive and judicial authority
        2. Each consul could veto the other
      3. Senate had legislative authority and control over public funds
      4. Government included concept of dictator in periods of emergency
    4. Social Structure
      1. Patricians had wealth, power, and influence
      2. Plebeian "common" people represented 98 percent of population
      3. The "Struggle of the Orders"
        1. Tribunes created to protect the right of plebeians.
        2. The Law of the Twelve Tables
          1. Codified the law
          2. Perpetuated ancient customs
        3. The concilium plebis
      4. Slow shift to an aristocracy of wealth rather than birth
      5. The equestrians
        1. Men who had wealth and influence but chose business over politics
        2. Some underwrote political careers of relatives
      6. Distinction between a democracy and a republic
    5. Roman Identity
      1. Fundamentally conservative
      2. Influence of mos maiorum "custom of the ancestors"
      3. Strong identification with Roman homeland
      4. Significant power for the father's "patria potestas"
      5. Roman religious traditions similar to the Greeks
      6. Strong connections between religious and political life
        1. Dual roles of the priests
  5. Republic to Empire
    1. The Punic Wars
      1. The First Punic War (264-241 B.C.E.)
        1. Roman fear of Carthaginian expansion
        2. Carthage cedes Sicily to Rome
        3. Rome seizes Corsica and Sardinia
      2. The Second Punic War (218-202 B.C.E.)
        1. Carthaginian expansion in Spain
        2. Rome declares war
        3. Role of Hannibal (247-182 B.C.E.)
        4. The victory of Scipio Africanus
        5. Carthage abandons all territory save Carthage
      3. The Third Punic War (149-146 B.C.E.)
        1. "Carthage must be destroyed"
        2. Romans massacre Carthaginians
    2. Territorial expansion
      1. Increase in Roman territory (Sicily, North Africa, and Spain)
      2. Policy of westward expansion
      3. Greece and Macedon become Roman provinces (146 B.C.E.)
  6. Consequences of Imperialism
    1. Transformations
      1. New wealth poured into Rome
      2. Increasing social and economic inequality
      3. Small farmers left the land for the cities; difficult to manage careers as soldiers and farmers
    2. Economic and social changes
      1. Slavery
        1. Increase in slave population
        2. Two hundred thousand Greek and Carthaginian slaves by end of second century B.C.E.
        3. Slaves used as agricultural laborers
        4. Dependence on slave labor inhibits industrialization and technological initiative
        5. Slave labor not just physical—includes technical and professional jobs
        6. Almost no reason for paid labor at all
        7. Notion of "bread and circuses" to keep people entertained
      2. Equestrians made contact with Eastern markets
        1. Operated mines, built roads, collected taxes, principal moneylenders
        2. Enormous appetite for foreign luxury goods
    3. Change in values
      1. Introduction of "free marriage"
      2. New rules for divorce
      3. Wives gained greater legal independence
      4. Upper-class Romans adopted Greek customs
      5. Emergence of bilingualism: Latin and Greek language
        1. Greek was the literary language; Latin the language of trade and commerce
    4. Epicureanism and Stoicism
      1. Lucretius (98-55 B.C.E.)
        1. On the Nature of Things
      2. Stoicism
        1. Introduced around 140 B.C.E.
        2. Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.)
          1. "Father of Roman eloquence"
          2. Tranquility of the mind is the highest good
          3. Man is indifferent to pain and sorrow
          4. Bringing the best of Greek philosophy to Rome
    5. Religion
      1. Spread of Eastern mystery cults
      2. A more emotional religion
      3. Combination of Egyptian and Asian influences
  7. "Restoring the Republic:" The Struggle for Power (146-30 B.C.E.)
    1. Period of turbulence, disorder, war, assassinations, and insurrections
    2. Spartacus slave uprising (73-71 B.C.E.)
    3. Reforms of the Gracchi
      1. Tiberius Graachus (168-133 B.C.E.)
        1. Redistribution of land to landless
        2. Invoked old laws restricting size of estate to be owned by each citizen
        3. The murder of Tiberius
      2. Gaius Graachus (159-123 B.C.E.)
        1. Empowered equestrian class; checked abuses of the senatorial class
        2. Stabilized price of grain in Rome
        3. Suggested full citizenship to Italian allies
        4. The murder of Gaius
    4. The aristocratic reaction
      1. Marius (157-86 B.C.E.)
        1. Elected consul in 107 B.C.E., reelected six times
        2. Abolished property qualification for the army
        3. Army became more loyal to him than to the Republic
        4. Specter of potential civil war
      2. Sulla (138-78 B.C.E.)
        1. Appointed dictator (82 B.C.E.)
        2. Extended Roman citizenship throughout peninsula
        3. Led his troops in march on Rome
        4. Exterminated his opponents
        5. Extended the power of the Senate
        6. After three years as dictator retired in luxury
  8. Caesar's Triumph—and His Downfall
    1. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Gaius Julius Caesar, and Marcus Junius Crassus (Pompey) conspire to gain control of the government
    2. Enter into triumvirate; soon dissolved into open rivalry
    3. Pompey (106-48 B.C.E.) orchestrates his election as consul
      1. Declared Caesar (while away in Gaul) an enemy of the republic
      2. Has ambition to become king
    4. Julius Caesar's Return to Rome (c. 100-44 B.C.E.)
      1. Crosses the Rubicon River; intends to take Rome by force
      2. Destroys the forces of Pompey at Pharselus (48 B.C.E.)
      3. Dictator for ten years, then declares himself dictator for life (46 B.C.E.)
        1. Had full authority to make war and peace
        2. Controlled the revenue of the state
        3. Expanded citizenship to Hispania and Gaul
        4. Relieved economic inequalities; expanded colonization
        5. Develops Julian calendar
      4. Contemporaries feared he intended to make himself king
      5. Assassinated on the Ides (15th) of March (44 B.C.E.) on the Senate floor
  9. The Principate and Early Empire (27 B.C.E.-180 C.E.)
    1. Octavian (63 B.C.E.-14 C.E.)
      1. Joined forces with Marc Antony and Marcus Ledipus
      2. Murder of Cicero
      3. Crushing the republican opposition
      4. Brutus and Cassius punished
      5. The battle of Actium (31 B.C.E.)
    2. The Augustan system of government
      1. Senate votes for Octavian as emperor— calls him Augustus ("worthy of honor") (27 B.C.E.)
      2. Augustus rules as princeps ("first citizen")
      3. Republican institutions intact, but power resides with Augustus
      4. Controls the army, freely determines all government policy
      5. Achievements
        1. New coinage system
        2. Public services
        3. Appointed and supervised tax collectors; removed incentives to take additional money from people
        4. Defender of traditional values
      6. Augustus to Trajan
        1. Continued expansion
        2. Holds northern border at the Rhine and Danube
        3. The Roman Peace (Pax Romana)
        4. Tiberius (14-37 C.E.) and Claudius (41-54 C.E.)
        5. Nero (54-68 C.E.) and Domitian (81-96 C.E.)
        6. The "Five Good Emperors"
          1. Nerva (96-98 C.E.)
          2. Trajan (98-117 C.E.)
          3. Hadrian (117-138 C.E.)
          4. Antoninus Pius (138-171 C.E.)
          5. Marcus Aurelius (171-180 C.E.)
    3. Romanization and assimilation
      1. Pax Romana was not universal
        1. Roman massacres in Britain and Judea
      2. Assimilating the residents of conquered territories
      3. The spread of Roman cultural forms (amphitheaters, baths, paved roads)
      4. Rights of citizenship extended
      5. Borders and frontiers
  10. Culture and Life in the Period of the Principate
    1. Golden and Silver Ages of Literature
      1. The Golden Age—extolling the virtues of Rome—propagandistic in nature
        1. Virgil (70-19 B.C.E.)—the Ecologues and the Aeneid
        2. Horace (65-8 B.C.E.)—the Odes
        3. Livy (59 B.C.E.-17 C.E.)—History of Rome
        4. Ovid (43 B.C.E.-17 C.E.)—the Metamorphosis
      2. The Silver Age—self-conscious artifice
        1. Petronius (fl. first century C.E.)
        2. Apuleius (fl. second century C.E.)—The Golden Ass
        3. Juvenal (c. 55-140 C.E.)—the Satires
        4. Tacitus (c. 55-120 C.E.)— Germania and Historiae
    2. Art, architecture, and engineering
      1. Art imported from conquered territories
      2. The wealthy wanted art for their homes; as the demand increased, the Romans relied on copies
      3. Grand public architecture to delicate wall paintings
      4. The Pantheon and the Colosseum
      5. Engineering feats
        1. Roads and bridges
        2. Aqueducts
        3. Sewage systems
    3. Roman law
      1. Product of the Principate
      2. Wider field of jurisdiction
      3. Augustus appoints eminent jurists to deliver opinions on certain legal issues
      4. Three branches
        1. Civil law—the law of Rome and its citizens (both written and unwritten)
        2. Law of the peoples—early international law
        3. Natural law—a product of nature and of philosophy