Chapter Study Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. The image of the ancient Greek world
    2. Near Eastern influences
    3. Western ideas/Western values
  2. The Dark Age of Greece (1150-800 B.C.E.)
    1. The Dark Age
      1. Mycenaean decline
      2. Dorian invasion
      3. Depopulation
      4. The Greeks and their gods
      5. The idea of hubris
    2. Homer and the heroic tradition
      1. The importance of renewed trade
      2. The aristoi—the best men
      3. The heroic ideal
      4. The Iliad and the Odyssey
        1. First "sung" as part of an oral tradition
        2. Finally written down around 800 B.C.E.
      5. Competition, status, and the warrior-elite
      6. Hero cults
    3. Foreign contacts and the rise of the polis
      1. Phoenician influence
        1. alphabet
        2. seafaring
      2. Rapid population growth
      3. The polis (city-state)
        1. The asty—the urban community
        2. The khora—the land
        3. Synoikismos—bringing together of dwellings
  3. Archaic Greece (800-480 B.C.E.)
    1. "Age of Experiment"—a new dynamism
    2. Colonization and Panhellenism
      1. Expansion of the Greek world (Magna Graecia)—new contacts and trade
      2. A new awareness of common culture and outlook—Hellenes
      3. Panhellenism
        1. Oracle of Delphi
        2. Games at Olympia (776 B.C.E.).
        3. Dating events by "olympiads"
    3. Hoplite warfare
      1. Common foot soldiers supporting aristocratic warriors
      2. Carried spears of short swords and the large round shield (hopla)
      3. The phalanx
      4. Formation of a "hoplite class"
        1. Every polis needed a hoplite force
        2. Ranks filled by farmers who could afford armor
        3. Wanted a share in the political decisions of the polis
    4. Aristocratic culture and the rise of tyranny
      1. Pursued wealth and power as well as a distinctive culture
      2. Officeholding and the symposium
      3. Homosexuality
      4. The aristocratic identity
      5. A new elite—problems
        1. Violence between aristocratic groups
        2. Tyrannos—someone who seized power and ruled outside traditional framework
        3. The tyrant had to satisfy the hoplites
        4. Important path from aristocracy to democracy
    5. Lyric poetry
      1. A ne w departure
      2. Hesiod (c. 700 B.C.E.)
        1. Theogony and Works and Days
      3. Archilochus of Paros (c. 680-640 B.C.E.)
      4. Sappho (c. 620-559 B.C.E.)
      5. The new expression of feelings
  4. The Archaic Polis in Action
    1. Athens
      1. Identity
      2. Agricultural economy
      3. Government
        1. Landed aristocracy
        2. Elected magistrates and the council of state
        3. Nine archons held executive power (civil, military, judicial, and religious functions)
        4. Areopagus Council—elected the archons
      4. Political Change
        1. Debt slavery
        2. Political factions
        3. The failed coup of Kylon (632 B.C.E.)
        4. Drakon (621 B.C.E.)—"setting the laws"
          1. "draconian" punishments
        5. Solon (c. 640-c. 559 B.C.E.)
          1. Abolished debt slavery
          2. Encouraged cash-crop farming and urban industries
          3. Set up courts with citizen juries
          4. Eligibility for political office based on property, not birth
          5. The boule (steering committee)
          6. The ekklesia (citizen assembly)
        6. Peisistratos (c. 600-527 B.C.E.)
          1. Established himself as tyrant (546 B.C.E.)
          2. Public works projects
          3. Strengthened the demos
        7. Cleisthenes (c. 570-c. 508 B.C.E.)
          1. Championed the cause of the demos (the people)
          2. Reformed voting practices
          3. Reorganized the population into ten tribes
          4. Introduced ostracism
    2. Sparta
      1. The Peloponnesus
      2. Five villages combined (synoikismos) to become Sparta
      3. The conquest of Messenia
      4. The helots (slaves)
      5. The Spartiate (the "Equals")— professional soldiers of the phalanx
      6. A society organized for war
      7. Early training of boys and girls
      8. The apella—the citizen assembly of Spartiate males over thirty years old
      9. The gerousia—council that proposed matters to the apella
      10. The krypteia—secret police
      11. Helots and Spartiate
        1. Helots outnumbered Spartiate ten to one
        2. The problem of revolts
      12. Spartiate could not engage in trade or farm their own land (distractions)
      13. Protectors of the "traditional constitutions" of Greece
      14. Demographic flaws
    3. Miletus
      1. Commercial, cultural, and military power of Ionia (Asia Minor)
      2. Strong Hellenic identity shaped by Near Eastern influence
      3. Ionia and Lydia—cross-cultural exchange
      4. Ionians Hellenize interior of Asia Minor
      5. Strong trading interests (Black Sea and Egypt)
      6. Speculative thought—the "Milesian School"
        1. Pre-Socratic thought
        2. The cosmos, gods, and men
        3. Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes
        4. Theories of the cosmos and the problem of change
        5. From religious belief to philosophical speculation
  5. The Persian Wars
    1. The Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.)
      1. Causes and origins (the account of Herodotus)
      2. Darius the Great—teaching Athens a lesson
    2. Marathon and its aftermath
      1. Athens is refused help from the Spartans
      2. Athenian victory (without Spartan help)
      3. Themistocles—building the Greek navy
    3. Xerxes' invasion
      1. Punish the Athenians—overland invasion
      2. The Hellenic League (Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and other poleis)
      3. Greek defeat at Thermopylae (480 B.C.E.)
      4. Athens abandoned and burned by the Persians
      5. Battle of Plataea and the end of the war
  6. The Golden Age of Classical Greece
    1. The Delian League
    2. Periclean Athens
      1. The strategos—general
      2. Anti-Spartan foreign policy
      3. Pushed reforms to make Athens more democratic
      4. Ostracism of Cimon
      5. Shifted power away from the Areopagus
      6. Public building—public confidence
    3. Literature and drama
      1. Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.E.)
      2. Sophocles (496-406 B.C.E.)
      3. Euripides (485-406 B.C.E.)
      4. Aristophanes (c. 448-382 B.C.E.)
      5. Herodotus (c. 485-425 B.C.E.)
      6. Thucydides (c. 460-c. 400 B.C.E.)
    4. Art and architecture
      1. Idealized beauty
      2. The dignity of the unadorned human form
      3. The Parthenon
    5. Women and men in the daily life of Athens
      1. Inequality of the sexes
      2. A male world
      3. Women in the shadows
        1. Rearing of children to supply the infantry
        2. A private space
        3. Marriage
        4. "Women's work"
    6. Slavery
      1. Athenian slavery widespread but small in scale
      2. Most families owned at least one or two slaves
  7. League Building and the Peloponnesian War
    1. Athenian control of the Delian League
    2. Animosities and jealousies—had Athens become a tyranny?
    3. The Peloponnesian War erupts
      1. Athens and Sparta
      2. A quick war?—a war of attrition
      3. Pericles' naval strategy
      4. Athenian plague
      5. Alcibiades
      6. Spartan victory
    4. The end of the war
      1. Lysander destroys the Athenian fleet (404 B.C.E.)
      2. The Thirty Tyrants
      3. Spartan success?
      4. War brought demoralization and a questioning of former certainties
    5. The Pythagoreans and the Sophists
      1. Pythagoras—mathematics and musical theory
      2. The Sophists—"those who are wise"
      3. Protagoras—"man is the measure of all things"
      4. Socrates
        1. Questioning received truth— examine everything
        2. Socrates was wise because he knew nothing
        3. He examined ethics rather than the physical world
        4. The "philosopher of the marketplace"
      5. The life and thought of Socrates
  8. Conclusion
    1. Image versus reality
    2. Freedom, competition, individual achievement, and human glory
    3. Primacy of the human intellect
    4. The Greeks and humanity
    5. Paideia