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European History Timeline
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Dates are B.C.E. unless noted * mya=million years ago
c.2000Minoan worship of the Mother Goddess
c.2000Extensive commerce between Egypt and Crete
c.2000-1500Height of Minoan Civilization
c.1600-1200Mycenaean civilization on mainland Greece
c.1500-800Dark Ages of Greek history
c.1500-1400Mycenaean dominance on Crete
c.1400Destruction of Knossos and end of Minoan Civilization
c.1250Trojan War
c.1200-1100Collapse of Mycenaean civilization in Greece
c.800Beginning of city-states in Greece
c.750-600Concentration of landed wealth in Greece
c.750-600Greek overseas expansion
c.753Rome founded
c.750The Iliad and The Odyssey
c.700Earliest Greek settlement in Egypt's Nile delta
c.650Shift from cavalry to infantry in Greece
c.650-500Doric architectural style
c.600Invention of coinage by Lydians
c.600Thales of Miletus
594Reforms of Solon in Athens
508Reforms of Cleisthenes in Athens
c.500-400Ionic architectural style
c.500Establishment of Roman Republic
c.500Orphic and Eleusinian mystery cults
490-479Greco-Persian War
487-429Perfection of Athenian democracy
478-404Delian League
c.460The Parthenon
c.450Law of the Twelve Tables, Rome
c.450-400The Sophists
431-404Peloponnesian War
c.400-300Corinthian style architecture
338Macedonian conquest of Greece
334-323Conquests of Alexander the Great
323Death of Alexander, division of his empire
c.320-250Zeno the Stoic
c.300-100Hellenistic international trade
264-146Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage
c.250-100Growth of slavery, decline of small farmer in Rome
c.250-50Oriental mystery cults in Rome
c.200The Skeptics
c.183-145Greek Invasion of India
146Destruction of Carthage by Rome
c.146-60Introduction of Greek philosophy to Rome
133-121Reforms of the Gracchi brothers in Rome
46-44Dictatorship of Caesar in Rome
27B.C.E.-14C.E.Principate of Augustus Caesar in Rome
27B.C.E.-14C.E.Principate of Augustus Caesar in Rome
61.Treaty of Samos between Rome and Kush
c.80The Colosseum
96-180The "Good Emporers" in Rome
c.120The Pantheon
c.120-250Height of Roman portrait statuary
121-180Marcus Aurelius
200Completion of Roman jurisprudence by great jurists
235-284Civil war in the Roman empire
306-337Constantine I
311Beginning of toleration of Christians in Roman Empire
354-430St. Augustine
379-395Theodosius I
380Christianity becomes the official Roman religion
410Visigoths sack Rome
476Deposition of last western Roman emporer
493-526Theodoric the Ostrogoth king of Italy
c.500-700Decline of towns and trade in the west
c.520Benedictine monastic rule
532-537Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia
c.550Corpus of Roman law
590-604Pope Gregory I
610-641Byzantine Emperor Heraclius
630Muhammad enters Mecca in triumph
c.700-1050Predominantly agrarian economy in the West
711Muslims conquer Spain
c.715-754Missionary work of St. Boniface in Germany
717Muslims unsuccessfully attack Constantinople
726-843Iconoclastic controversy in Byzantine Empire
735Death of the Venerable Bede
c.750Book of Kells (Ireland)
751Pepin the Short annointed king of the Franks
c.800-1000Height of Byzantine commerce and industry
c.800-850Carolingian Renaissance
800Charlemagne crowned emperor
c.850-911Carolingian Empire distintegrates
871-899Alfred the Great of England
c.880-911High point of Viking raids in Europe
910Foundation of Cluny
936-973Otto the Great of Germany
c.950Foundation of the Kievan state
c.988Byzantine conversion of Russia to Christianity
c.1000-1200Romanesque style in architecture and art
c.1025-1100Destruction of Byzantine free peasantry
1046Beginning of Reform Papacy
c.1050-1300Agricultural advance, revival of towns and trade in the West
1054Beginning of Schism between Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches
1054Beginning of Schism between Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches
1066Norman conquest of England
1071Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert
1073-1085Pope Gregory VII
1077Penance of Henry IV at Canossa
1090-1153St. Bernard of Clairvaux
1095-1099First Crusade
c.1095Song of Roland
c.1100-1300Origins of universities in the West
c.1100-1220Troubadour poetry
1100-1135Henry I of England
1108-1137Louis VI of France
c.1115-1153Height of Cistercian monasticism
1122Concordat of Worms ends investiture struggle
c.1140-1260Translation of Aristotle's works into Latin
c.1150-1500Gothic style in architecture and art
1152-1190Frederick I (Barbarossa) of Germany
1154-1189Henry II of England
c.1155-1157Peter Lombard's Sentences
c.1165-1190Poetry of Chrétien de Troyes
c.1168-1253Robert Grosseteste
1180-1223Philip Augustus of France
c.1180Windmill invented
1187Crusaders lose Jerusalem to Saladin
1198-1216Pope Innocent III
1198Death of Averroës
1204Crusaders sack Constantinople
1204Death of Maimonides
1208-1213Albigensian Crusade
1210Founding of Franciscan Order
1212Spanish victory over Muslims at Las Navas de Tolosa
1212-1250Frederick II of Germany and Sicily
c.1214-1294Francis Bacon
1215Magna Carta
1215Fourth Latern Council
1216Founding of Dominican Order
1225-1274St. Thomas Aquinas
1226-1270Louis IX (St. Louis) of France
c.1250-1277Height of Scholasticism
c.1270Romance of the Rose
1272-1307Edward I of England
1285-1349William of Ockham
1285-1314Philip IV (the Fair) of France
c.1290Mechanical clock invented
1291Fall of last Christian outposts in the Holy Land
1294-1303Pope Boniface VII
c.1300-1327Period of Master Eckhart's activity
c.1300-1450European economic depression
1305-1378Babylonian captivity of papacy
c.1305-1337Paintings of Giotto
c.1310Dante's Divine Comedy
1315Floods throughout western Europe
c.1320-1500height of nominalism
c.1330-1384John Wyclif
1337-1453Hundred Years War
1347-1350Black Death
c.1350-1450Height of Hanseatic League
c.1350-1450Political chaos in Germany
c.1350Boccaccio's Decameron
1378-1417The Great Schism of the papacy
1381English peasant's revolt
c.1390Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
1397-1494Medici Bank
1400-1441Paintings of Jan van Eyck
c.1408-1415Jon Hus preaches in Bohemia
1414-1417Council of Constance
1420-1434Hussite Revolt
c.1427Imitation of Christ
1429-1431Appearance of Joan of Arc
1431-1449Council of Basel, defeat of conciliarism
c.1450-1500Rise of princes in Germany
c.1450Printing with movable type
c.1453-1513Reassertion of royal power in France
1453Heavy artillery (cannons) helps Turks capture Constantinople and end Hundred Years War
1454-1485Peace among Northern Italian states
1455-1485War of the Roses in England
1462-1505Ivan III lays foundation for Russian Empire
1469Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
1485-1603Strong Tudor dynasty in England

W.W. Norton

REFERENCE: World Civilizations
Page created by Thomas Pearcy, Ph.D and Mary Dickson.
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Last revised February 5, 1997
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