Critical Reading Exercises

“War’s Aftermath” (pp. 715–721)

1. Enter Notes: for this section of the exercise, simply note important points.
2. Summarize the passage in your own words.
Answer the following questions related to the reading:
1. What were the political and economic effects of the exit of the South’s planter elite from the United States Congress?
2. What was the condition of the cash crop economy (cotton, tobacco, sugar) in the war’s aftermath?

“Battle over Political Reconstruction” (pp. 721–723)

1. Enter Notes: for this section of the exercise, simply note important points.
2. Summarize the passage in your own words.
Answer the following questions related to the reading:
1. Why was Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction considered moderate when compared to the congressional plans?
2. What did southern legislatures hope to accomplish by implementing “black codes”?

“The Reconstructed South” (pp. 734–743)

1. Enter Notes: for this section of the exercise, simply note important points.
2. Summarize the passage in your own words.
Answer the following questions related to the reading:
1. What is “sharecropping” and in what ways did it keep former slaves vulnerable to the desires of white landowners?
2. Why was education so important to the black communities that developed across the South in the aftermath of the Civil War?

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