In This Section


Generating Ideas

Invention Techniques – Jill LeRoy-Frazier, MALS Writing Center
Numerous strategies for teaching, linked to handouts.

Brainstorming – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
In addition to more familiar methods: "3 perspectives," relationship between the parts, thinking outside the box, idea shapes, and more.

Prewriting Strategies – Tracy Duckart, Humboldt State University
Clustering, cubing, dialoguing, dramatizing, freewriting, listing, matrixing, outlining, topical invention.

Creative Thinking and Lateral Thinking Techniques - Infinite Innovations Ltd, UK
"Change your life and career with advanced brainstorming." Novel techniques for idea generation.


Academic Writing for Undergraduate Students – Monash University, Victoria, Australia
Defines academic writing, important features and techniques for successful writing across disciplines.

Developing an Anti-Procrastination Plan – Karalyn Jones, University of Houston-Victoria

Drafting the Essay – Monash University, Victoria, Australia
Includes interactive analyses of how introductions and conclusions are suited to the essay's content.

Strategies for Overcoming Writer's Block – The Center for Writing Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Principles of Composition – Charles Darling, Capital Community College
Sections: The Writing Process, Structural Considerations, Patterns of Composition, online handbook with subtopic descriptions and illustrations.

Some General Advice on Academic Essay-Writing – C. A. Silber, University of Toronto
Overview of general strategies, with resource links for stages of writing from understanding the topic through proofreading.

Writing in College: A Short Guide to College Writing – Joseph M. Williams and Lawrence McEnerney, University of Chicago
Differences between high school and college writing, drafting, revising, polishing, and more.

The Writing Process – The Purdue Online Writing Lab


Assigning Collaborative Writing: Tips for Teachers – Rebecca Moore Howard, Syracuse University

Collaborating Online – Marti Atkinson, California Virtual Campus
Skills and tools for online teamwork and project management.

Managing Group Writing Projects – University Writing Center, Texas A&M University
Guidelines for meetings, roles within the group.

Writing Groups – The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Group work and feedback resources, activities and worksheets.

Kinds of Writing

Subject-Specific Resources – The Purdue Online Writing Lab
Help with writing in disciplines such as business, engineering, journalism, and nursing, as well as with creative writing and literary analysis.

Genres – Thompson Writing Program, Duke University
Definitions and guidelines for thirty-nine genres of writing.

Common Writing Assignments – The Purdue Online Writing Lab
Resources and handouts covering several kinds of writing assigned in college courses, including argument papers, annotated bibliographies, book reviews, and proposals.

Writing: Keeping It Real – Bill Kist, Kent State University, in Teacher to Teacher (Ohio Literacy Council)
See table on page 2 for ninety-nine writing genres and contexts.


Abstracts – Writing@CSU Guide, Colorado State University
Thorough guide, from introduction to additional resources, including tips for writing in specific disciplines.

Abstracts – Center for Communication Practices, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Definition, writing approach, example.

Writing Abstracts – Judith Kilborn, LEO: Literacy Education Online, St. Cloud State University

Analyzing Texts: Literature

Guidelines for Writing a Literary Critical Analysis – Sierra College Library
Explains the interpretive basis of literary analysis with guiding questions for formulating and supporting the essay.

Conventions of Writing Papers about Literature – Celia Easton, SUNY College-Geneseo
Straightforward overview of common pitfalls, concerns, and strategies.

Literary Analysis Guide: Analyzing a Passage – Goshen College
Strategies for analyzing individual passages as the basis for analyzing longer texts, with examples.

Writing Papers of Literary Analysis – Seamus Cooney, Western Michigan University
Organization, content, what to avoid, mechanics.

Literary Resources – Robert Harris, Virtual Salt
Tools for understanding the novel's place in literature, its form, and associated resources.

A Glossary of Literary Terms – Robert Harris, Virtual Salt

The Personal Computer as a Tool for Literary Analysis – Robert Harris, Virtual Salt
Discovering and tracking text features to reveal patterns, verify themes, determine readability levels.

Analyzing Texts: Nonfiction

Analyzing a Text
Harvard University Writing Center handout.

Doing a Rhetorical Analysis of a Text – Kate Kiefer, Writing @CSU, Colorado State University

Basic Questions for Rhetorical Analysis – Brigham Young University

Rhetorica Network – Andrew Cline, Missouri State University
Discussion and assessment of bias in media, applications of classical rhetoric to contemporary news items.

Annotated Bibliographies

Annotated Bibliographies – University of Wisconsin-Madison
Explains and illustrates indicative, informative, evaluative and combination annotating.

How to Write Annotated Bibliographies – Memorial University Libraries, Newfoundland, CA
Instructions, examples.

How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography – Cornell University Olin & Uris Libraries

Writing an Annotated Bibliography – Deborah Knott, New College Writing Centre
Definitions, examples, and terminology for writing an annotated bibliography from the University of Toronto.

Analysis Resources: E-Texts


Online Books Page – edited by John Mark Ockerbloom, University of Pennsylvania
"Over 25,000 free books on the Web."

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts – University of County Cork
Project archiving Irish history and literary texts in Irish, Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and English.

Favorite Poem Project – Boston University with the Library of Congress
"Americans saying poems they love." Poetry project with video profiles.

A Small Anthology of Poems – Seamus Cooney, Western Michigan University
Classic and contemporary poetry, a varied selection.

Folklore and Mythology Electronic Texts – D. L. Ashliman, University of Pittsburgh
Folklore, mythology, fairy tales.


Arts and Letters Daily – The Chronicle of Higher Education
Newspapers, columnists, journals, reviews, annotated selections. Updated six days a week, archived from 1998.

The Enola Gay Controversy – Nuclear Age Peace Foundation
The Enola Gay exhibit controversy: initial and final drafts of the exhibit documents illustrating shift in perspective and emphases.

Arguing a Position


Writing Argumentative Papers – Texas Tech University's Paradigm Online Writing Assistance
Many examples of each stage of preparing and considering argumentation, well-organized.

Stages of Argument – Peter Suber, Earlham College
Proposes and explains four tiers of argument sophistication.

Materials for Selected Argument Topics

An Outline of the Anita Hill and Clarence Thomas Controversy – George Mason University
Background, commentary, testimony, gender/race/media perspectives, links to other historic Supreme Court documents and resources, like Brown vs. the Board of Education.

Commonwealth Institute – nonprofit public policy institute, Cambridge, MA
Featured publications include "Pulse of Capitalism" and "Project on Defense Alternatives"; reviews and documents detailing Iraq War strategies, developments, factors in decision-making.

The Enola Gay Controversy – Edward J. Gallagher, Lehigh University
Discussion and primary resources track the history of the Smithsonian exhibit controversy.

NATO Online Library
Among the documents: communiqués, speech and news conference transcripts of secretaries general from 1946 onward. – Nuclear Age Peace Foundation
Resources for researching nuclear disarmament issues, including history, ethics, documents, biographies of key players, current research, study guides.


10 Ways to Use Weblogs in the Classroom – Blogs@Baruch, Bernard l. Schwartz Communication Institute, Baruch College, CUNY
Multiple resources & explanations: educational blogging.

Tools Directory – Centre for Learning & Performance Technologies
A comprehensive resource for tools to help with podcasts, blogs, online collaboration, and more.

"Best Author Blogs" – Internet Writing Journal
Index of blogs by professional writers.


Critical Reviews – University of Wisconsin-Madison
Book and article reviewing, basic guidelines.

Writing Academic Evaluations – Writing @ CSU Colorado State University
Uses, types, parts, process, resources.

Book Reviews – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Book or article reviewing, with brief illustrations comparing common student weaknesses to successfully rendered critical judgment.

The Art of Scholarly Reviewing – Bruce Mazlish in Perspectives, February 2001 (American Historical Association)
Discusses the obligations and hallmarks that distinguish scholarly evaluations.

How to Write a Film Review – XTEC
Catalonian digital educational resource Annotated diagram of basic considerations.

Lab Reports

Lab Reports – Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
General overview suited to most science and engineering courses.

How to Write a Lab Report – Pomona College
Extensive guide explains parts of lab report with detailed writing style discussion.

Sample Descriptive Lab Report – LabWrite, North Carolina State University

Literacy Narratives

Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives (DALN) – Ohio State University

Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass – Project Gutenberg
Electronic version of the text originally published by the Boston Anti-Slavery Office in 1845.

“Whose Encyclopedia?” – Ramona Fernandez, from Rhizomes, issue 3 (Fall 2001)
Deleuzian philosophical bent. Discusses common classifications of knowledge in dictionaries and encyclopedias, and the "epistemologies of power" minority students encounter in traditional paths to literacy.


Tools Directory – Centre for Learning & Performance Technologies
A comprehensive resource for tools to help with podcasts, blogs, online collaboration, and more.


Writing Profiles – Stacy Tartar Esch, West Chester University
Details the appeal, purpose, basic features, and possible approaches to profile essay assignments.

Proposals for Funding

Writing a Successful Grant Proposal – Minnesota Council on Foundations
Outlines the process, including variations, a brief FAQ section, hiring professional grant writers, practical advice on rejection, success, and partial funding.

How to Write a Proposal – The Business Link
Outlines twelve business proposal features, from cover letter to final review.

Proposing Solutions

Proposals – Penn State University
Penn State's e-portfolio assignment for an essay that proposes a solution to a problem.

"Up On Downloading" – Elaine McArdle, Harvard Law Bulletin Summer 2004
Harvard law professors propose three solutions to internet music piracy.

Reporting Information

Writing Reports, Proposals, and Technical Documents – Laurie A. Pinkert, The Purdue Online Writing Lab
Getting started, report sections, general guidelines for research reports.

Report Writing – University of Canberra
Distinguishes reports from essays; explains structure, presentation, common problems; offers additional resources.

Reporting Verbs: Verbs for Referring to Sources – Martine Johnston, University of Toronto
Listed with associated clauses and phrasing for grammatical correctness.

Reporting Verbs – Glasgow Caledonian University
Distinguishes neutral choices from verbs that suggest the author's view or knowledge.


George Mason University School of Management Career Services – George Mason University/New Century College
Overview, guidelines, example, internet tips.

Resume Writing: How to Write a Masterpiece of a Resume – Rockport Institute, excerpted from Nicholas Lore's The Pathfinder: How To Choose or Change Your Career for a Lifetime of Satisfaction and Success
Detailed explanation covers resume rationale, writing guidelines, presentation style, "power words."