Interactive flashcards help students review their knowledge of approximately 200 terms.

Q - R
a form of publication typically used in England at the close of the sixteenth century where pages were created by folding paper in fours. Plays of the era, such as those of shakespeare , were generally published in inexpensive quarto editions. ( See folio.)
raked stage
a stage that slopes upward so that it is elevated at the back ( upstage ) and lower in the front. During the Italian Renaissance, perspective scenery relied on raked stages to reinforce the perception of depth. The actors primarily performed downstage.
the performance area in a sanskrit playhouse.
the main performance area consisting of the most prominent performance space on the stage in a sanskrit playhouse.
in a sanskrit performance, the retiring room, or green room area upstage that stretches across the width of the back wall and is fronted by the performance space; there is generally an ornamental curtain with two openings for entrances and exits that separates the rangashirsha from the playing area.
in sanskrit drama, the cumulative stimuli and aesthetic reactions of spectators that are formed when paired with bhavas (emotions). There are nine basic rasas : erotic, comic, pathetic, furious, heroic, terrible, odious, marvelous, and peaceful. A play can incorporate many rasas but at its conclusion, one rasa must predominate to ensure a sense of balance and closure for the spectator.
a literary and theatrical style that seeks to depict life as it really is without conventional artifice. The origins of realism can be traced to nineteenth-century Europe when playwrights and theater practitioners sought to move away from traditional, often melodramatic, plays and productions to create drama that appeared to that era to portray real people confronted with plausible situations. An interest in realistic staging prompted the concept of the fourth wall , a theatrical term that involves the use of a three-dimensional playing area where the actors' performance is focused entirely on the world of the play and the audience is a silent, unseen observer. henrik ibsen wrote realistic plays, as did anton chekhov , george bernard shaw , and susan glaspell .
a set of plays. A repertory acting company will perform a series of plays in rotation, alternating productions in a given theatrical space during a specific period of time.
the final event that resolves the fundamental conflict that had sustained the play's main action. A resolution can also be a dénouement .
the theatrical period (1660-1700) marked by the return of Charles II to the throne of England after the Commonwealth period. Restoration drama was written for and represented the new aristocracy, which repudiated the moral strictures of Puritanism. Restoration plays, particularly the comedies, often feature bawdy and licentious humor and situations . the country wife by william wycherley and the rover by aphra behn are Restoration comedies.
revenge tragedy
a form of sensational tragedy revolving around stories of murder and revenge. Characteristics of revenge tragedy include soliloquies , plays within a play, and sensationalistic, even supernatural, plot twists. The Roman playwright seneca is considered the primary influence for the genre, which flourished in England during the reigns of Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) and James I (r. 1603-25). thomas kyd's the spanish tragedy and shakespeare's hamlet are among the best-known revenge tragedies.
in ancient Greece, a storyteller who recited mythological tales and epic poems such as Homer's Odyssey and Iliad to an audience. Rhapsodes performed at religious festivals prior to the advent of traditional drama, which emerged sometime in the late sixth century B.C.E..
rising action
the portion of a play's structure, usually near the beginning, in which events complicate the situation that existed at the beginning of a play, intensifying the conflict or introducing new conflict.
romance play
a term used primarily to describe shakespeare's later plays that mix the comic with the tragic. A romance play's action moves between pastoral and court or city settings and often incorporates magical elements. The reuniting of long-separated family members is also a common motif. Shakespeare's romance plays include: Cymbeline , Pericles , The Tempest and The Winter's Tale .
a literary and artistic movement that began in England and Germany around 1800 and emphasized imagination and emotion over the neoclassical ideals of intellect and reason. Largely influenced by the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), Romantic literature generally reflects a belief in the innate goodness of man in his natural state. Though there are many tenets of the movement, the fundamental interest of Romanticists was to explore the idea of truth as viewed in relation to the world and natural phenomena. Romanticists cultivated emotion and sensation, free thought and mysticism, and revolt against authority. Romantic works also reflect an interest in the melancholy state of man and his capacity for cruelty. In Germany, Romanticism was influenced by the philosophies of Immanuel Kant (1742-1804) and evolved from the Sturm und Drang (storm and stress) movement associated with the early works of Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805) and   johann wolfgang von goethe .
round characters
complex characters, often major characters, who can grow and change and "surprise convincingly"--that is, act in a way that the audience does not expect from what had gone on before but now accepts as possible, even probable, and "realistic." ( See flat characters.)