Learning Objectives

  1. Describe the anatomical characteristics that differentiate modern from archaic hominids.

  2. Describe the two main hypotheses of modern humans’ origins and illustrate these models in chart form.

  3. Describe the similarities and differences between early archaic Homo sapiens in Africa, Europe, and Asia.

  4. Catalogue the evidence for cannibalism among hominids.

  5. Describe the dietary adaptations in early archaic Homo sapiens.

  6. Describe the unique anatomical features of the Neandertals and discuss why and how these features might have arisen in the course of human evolution.

  7. Describe the “Neandertal world” in terms of landscape, climate, and dietary practices.

  8. Provide specific examples contradicting early paleoanthropologists’ assumption that Neandertals were brutish and stupid.

  9. Describe the biology and behavior of the first modern humans.

  10. Identify where the Cro-Magnon remains fit into the picture of human evolution.

  11. Discuss the evidence for and against both the Out of Africa and the Multiregional Continuity Models of modern human evolution.

  12. Describe the latest findings in DNA analysis of Neandertals.

  13. Provide two explanations for the genetic diversity seen in Africa.

  14. Describe the Assimilation Model and how it is similar to and different than the Out of Africa and Multiregional Continuity Models.

  15. Discuss the evidence for human migration to Australia and the Pacific islands.

  16. Situate the recently discovered Homo floresiensis within the path of human evolution.

  17. Evaluate the evidence for how and when people showed up in the Americas.

  18. Describe the anatomical features of Kennewick Man’s cranium and compare them to the features of modern Native Americans and Europeans.