Learning Objectives

  1. Explain how the concept of race began.

  2. Identify the discoveries in the 20th century that led to clines supplanting races as a way of understanding biological variation in humans.

  3. Define the three main stages in the human growth cycle and distinguish among them with examples of biological milestones within each stage.

  4. Describe both physical and cognitive changes that occur during childhood.

  5. Explain what happens to the human body during senescence and why grandmothering is an evolutionary advantage.

  6. Compare the ways in which the human body adapts to deal with the stresses of heat and hot climates with the way the body adapts to the stresses of cold and cold climates.

  7. Explain how solar radiation is related to skin color, vitamin D synthesis, and folate protection.

  8. Describe how people living in high altitudes have adapted to their environment.

  9. Compare the causes and effects of over/undernutrition on the growth, development, and overall health of the human body.

  10. Define Wolff’s law and provide at least one example of the effects of this law.